Tom DeNardo

Member for
23 years 3 months 25 days
Find a Grave ID

Bio

I have written my bio page to help assist, and educate, current and future researchers. The intention is that it be used as a resource document. All my information and tips are from my own personal experiences in researching the deceased. Numbered 1-39.

Library of Congress (www loc gov)
Every year on January 1st, a new year of copyright material has entered the public domain. "On 1 January 2021, copyright works from 1925 will enter the public domain."
Read the 1998 Copyright Term Extension Act.
Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution grants Congress the power, " To Promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to authors and inventors the exclusive Rights to their respective Writings and Discoveries."
**READ ALL THE RULES PERTAINING TO COPYRIGHT. DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH ON THIS SUBJECT.**

1. The civil war photograph posted up above is at civilwarphotosleuth com/project/94 by Brian Downey, (ID:48681317).Can you help identify this Union Officer, rank is 2Lt. What company did he serve under? On the reverse side of the photo it says Partridge's Gallery, Wheeling West Virginia. It has a used blue 2 cent revenue stamp on it, which was issued in 1862. They are called Carte de Visite. The CDV cards were used from 1864- 1866. They are 2.5 by 3.5 in size. Research Frenchman Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi (1819-1889 France).

2. The terms Graveyard and Cemetery.
Graveyard refers to burials in a churchyard, next to a church. As graveyards filled up, cemeteries became necessary. The first known cemetery in the United States is the Standish Burial Ground in Duxbury, Massachusetts. Named after Myles Standish (1584-1656), ID: 971, it's considered a colonial cemetery and it includes many burials from the Mayflower.

Tip. Do you know the difference between:
(a) Gravestone
(b) Headstone
(c) Tombstone

3. In 1995, Jim Tipton, ID Number 1, created Findagrave . When I first joined this site back in July 1999, we had to mail our photos to Utah and they would upload the records, which meant I did not get credit for many records. Anytime you see my photos attached to famous records dated before Dec 2001, means I created the records but only credited with the photo and some have been replaced. The earliest photo I added was for William C. Quantrill (1837-1865) on 10 April 2000, in the Confederate Cemetery, Higginsville, Missouri. Once my record became Famous, their policy back then was to remove contributors name and replace it with "Maintained by Findagrave", which began in August 2000. Eventually, they changed this so the contributors name was always listed as "Created by Tom DeNardo" and also "Maintained by Findagrave." Our uploaded photos to famous records used to include the dates. Three of my earliest famous records with "Created by Tom DeNardo", are (1) Freeman Davis (1842-1899), Medal of Honor, Oak Hill Cemetery, Butler, Missouri, added 25 September 2001, and (2) John Hack MOH, (1842-1933) Maple Grove Cemetery, Trenton, Missouri, added 14 November 2001, (3) Daniel Read Anthony Jr (1870-1931), Leavenworth National Cemetery, Kansas, added 17 October 2001. Some of my older famous photos still include the date uploaded. When they mailed my photos back to me, they included a magnet with their logo on it.

4. I have added famous records and photos in Kansas, but not given credit for include: William Beach, Camillo Carr, Edward Hatch, Henry Leavenworth, Medal of Honor recipients; Roger Durham, Harry Bell, Fitz Lee, George Miller, Edward Pengally, and Albert Sale, also, Lucien Baker, Daniel Read Anthony, Sr, Maj Gen George Dietzler, Maj Gen Richard Curtis Moore, Brig Gen Thomas Moonlight, George Yates, killers Perry Edward Smith and Richard Hickock. Other famous records in Missouri include: John William Fletcher, James Goodloe, Alexander William Doniphan, Brig Gen James Totten, MOH Sterling Gault, Henry Louis Routt, William Cowherd, Laura (Hawkins) Fraser, of Samuel Clemens fame and his children in Hannibal, MO and including Joe " Indian Joe" Douglass (1821-1923) , Mt Mora: Robert Coontz, Gov Willard Hall, David Heaton and so many more that credit was not given to me as "created by". Many of my once-famous records were duplicated and accepted as famous.

5. Options to help make your search for a memorial easier on Findagrave.
(a) Go to the homepage or click on Memorials.
(b) To the right of the Search Button" there is
" More Search Options" Click on it.
(c) There are 3 categories: 1. Memorial Types, 2. Memorials, 3. Include. (18 total options.)

Tip: Gregorian Calendar is D-M-Y.
Day-Month-Year: 20 June 1865 .

6. PROGENITOR: A person or thing from which a person is descended or originates from. George Payne (1670-1744), ID: 11294367, Payne Cemetery, Goochland, Virginia. The Payne family of Fluvanna County Virginia. An example is George Payne and the family bible.

7. Adding your relationship to certain family members you manage.
(a) Click on Edit Memorial
(b) Right below "Famous: Yes or No", you will see
(c) CLOSE RELATIVE ? Click Yes.
(d) Now you choose your relationship such as
Child or Parent or Grandparent. Click on any of these words and you will see the word Options
(e) Options gives you things like Great- grandchild or Great-Nephew, Adoptive Child.
(f) The result will appear next to
--Maintained By or Created By-- Example:
Created by: Tom DeNardo • Relative - Child

Tip: Updates on Findagrave can be found at:
(a) The homepage- scroll down to the bottom of the page.
(b) Click on "Site Map."
(c) Look under the heading "About Findagrave."
(d) Click on "News & Announcements "

8. Use the Cemetery Map to find a memorial by name. It does not work on Defunct Cemeteries.
Click on the cemetery name .
(a) Just below this you will see three words going from left to right: ABOUT, PHOTOS, MAP
(b) Click on Map
(c) Scroll down below the aerial view of the cemetery
(d) Click on MORE TIPS.
It explains what the numbers and colors mean.
(e) A window opens up to allow you to "Search This Map Area to find a memorial by name.
(a) Numbers with different colors appear on the map.
(b) Here is how you turn them off:
- There are two buttons . The left side button removes the numbers from the map. Swipe left.
--Then you can type the name. The gravestone will appear on the map.

9. Updates created on Findagrave in May 2023:
(1) " Tag A Veteran."
(a) Click on Edit Memorial
(b) Scroll down to "Designations"
• Designate as a Veteran
A gray circle with a "White V" in it will appear at the end of the surname.

(2) " Add Grave Marker Options."
(a) Click on Edit Memorial
(b) Scroll down and click on "Additional Grave Marker Options"
• Label as Cenotaph
• Label as Monument

10. Grave Photo Order. My preference is:
(a)The Actual Person.
(b)The individual's gravestone.
When a family is buried near one another, their gravestones always look similar. When you scroll through the cemetery on this site, you need too see each person's individual, yet, similar gravestone to make your research easier.
(c) Family Surname Gravestone. This needs to be last to avoid confusion.

11. Grave Stones.
I never change what's on the gravestone. It can misdirect researchers and it can cause a duplicate memorial to be created.
Example: Catherine "Edith" Burris, (1882-1951), ID: 19794047, Riverview Cemetery, Aurora, Indiana. I spent 15 minutes looking for Catherine's obituary. Nothing came up. I decided to look at her gravestone and it says " Edith Burris", no mention of Catherine on the gravestone. When I looked up the obituary for Edith Burris, it came up immediately!
If you are having trouble finding a person, use my method; leave the first name blank and just add the last name and year of death.

Family grave stones usually look identical when they are in the same cemetery. If your unsure of who a person is related to, compare the gravestones. When you find a stone that says for example; "Sarah, dau of G.& E. Jones", make your research easier by linking them together right away. Transcribe what you see on the gravestone. Many times the death date on the gravestone is the burial date. When you see for example: Mary Jones 1865-1895 and husband Henry Jones 1863-19__, the blank space in my experience has shown that he is buried in a different cemetery and possibly a different state, and this is usually because the spouse died at a young age. Burial Customs and Religions often determined whether or not your grave faced west or east, and if your married , it determined which side you were buried on, the left or right side of your spouse. Try to transcribe the hard to read inscriptions because they contain valuable information.

12. Birth and Death Locations.
If your unsure of where this person was born or died, leave it blank. NEVER ASSUME because then you enter incorrect information. I have corrected countless memorials using an obituary . Example is Dr Walter Cary (1818-1881), ID: 610 78499, Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo, New York. His record showed died in Buffalo, NY. The obituary says he died in Italy, cremated in Milan, Italy and his ashes were flown to New York via England.

13. Gravestone Photos.
When I fulfill photo request, I use one particular pink rose to lay on the stone. It makes each of my photos, "my unique signature photo." Always crop photos and documents to make them look professional.
Treat grave stone photos with respect, meaning take the type of quality photos you would want for your relatives gravestones.
My photos usually include a landmark of some type to help anyone find the grave on their own. I began using the rose as early as 2015, both for photo request and in creating a new memorial. Include burial plot location. See my virtual cemetery "Signature Flower."

14. Toponymic Surnames.
Also called topographic surnames, is a surname derived from a place name. Typonymic surnames was a trend linking people to their places of origin.
Example: my surname was originally "Di Nardo," from Nardo, Italy. Another example was actress Ann Bancroft, (1931-2005). ID: 11121391, Kensico Cemetery, Valhalla, New York. Her real name was Anna Maria Italiano. Both of her parents have toponymic surnames; her father was Italiano and mothers name was Di Napoli.

Tip: Here is how you correct a photo that was added sideways or upside down.
(a) Click on the photo.
(b) Click on the " rotation icon."

Here is a message sent to me on 17 January 2015 by Dave Davenport, ID: 475 29 177. It is about photos and edits I sent to him pertaining to Paul Riordan, (1920-1944), World War II, MOH recipient buried at Mount Olivet Cemetery, Kansas City, Missouri. I told Mr. Davenport that Riordans gravestone is in the family plot far away from his MOH stone which stands alone in the cemetery entrance. I included a long distant photo to show him.
" This has been a great morning, not only did I get all the info you sent but I also discovered that Paul Riordan (one of the siblings), was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. My wife was not aware of that. This is such a great web site. Thanks again."

15. Here are 2 ways to create your Virtual Cemetery.
(1). This option only allows you to Create.
(a) Pull up the memorial
(b) Hit the "Save To" button
(c) It brings up your "Virtual Cemetery List.
Create a name. Then hit "Save"

(2). There are two options here:
Add a Virtual Cemetery Or
Add a Memorial to your New Virtual Cemetery.
(a) Pull up memorial.
(b) Hit Edit.
(c) Look below the "Save Changes". You will see:
--Add a Virtual Cemetery or Choose Cemetery--.

(3) Now that you have created a Virtual Cemetery, here is another way to ADD more:
When your on your bio page, Scroll down until you see your list of virtual cemeteries. Now, look to the right of them and you will see "ADD."

Saving a memorial to your Virtual Cemeteries.
(a) Pull up the memorial.
(b) Hit "Save To"

16. Four Short-Cut Features to:
Edit, Transfer, Delete, or Report a Duplicate Memorial.

(a) Pull up the memorial you manage.
Next to the Edit button, there is a down arrow, click on it
(b) The following options appear:
Transfer Management,
Report a Duplicate or Delete Memorial.

17. Nicknames, Middle Names, Abbreviations.
Many people used these names their entire lives, and its reflected on their gravestones. Utilize all variations in your research.
Examples are:
(a) Minnie: Minerva or Wilhelmina
(b) Maggie: Margaret
(c) Charlotte: Lottie or Lola
(d) Carrie: Caroline or Carolyn
(e) Sadie: Sarah
(f) Etta, Hattie, Hetty: Harriet or Henrietta
(g) Nellie: Eleanor
(h) Jas-James, Jno-John, Chas-Charles

18. Global Positioning System Coordinates.
Added to this site on 25 June 2019. The GPS location is very important to help locate a grave if the gravestone is ever missing, or if it is buried under dirt and grass. This site allows us to lock in the coordinates. Go to Edit Memorial, Scroll down to the feature titled " Pin On Maps", now click on it, you will see the location pin appear on the map, click on the pin. The GPS coordinates are now added. Hit the save button; once for GPS, now hit Save Suggestions for the memorial.

19. Researching maiden names from the 1800s to the early 1900s:
(a) Mary T. Lincoln, the 'T'usually represents her maiden name, not her middle name.
(b) Robert Todd Lincoln. The first born son's middle name is usually his mothers maiden name. When you see (nee) next to a woman's name, it refers to her maiden name: Mary Lincoln (nee Todd).

20. Henry Sassaman Dotterer (1841-1903), Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia, PA, ID: 739 981 57. Authored a monthly publication titled "The Perkiomen Region, Past & Present." Source: The Harrisburg (PA) Telegraph, page 7, Saturday, 23 September 1899. It has a very detailed family genealogy list of surnames dating back to the 1600s. See: Francis Daniel Pastorius (1651-1720), Germantown, PA. Memorial ID: 159 702 69. Nathan Evans, (1711-1777), ID: 110540268, Bangor Episocal Cemetery, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The same article is attached to all three memorials.

21. Tip: In researching any subject, if you hit that brick wall, ask Google the same research question using different search criteria and you will get your questioned answered.

22. Italian Foundling Surnames.
In Italian Trovatella(fem), Trovatello(Masc) means "Foundling", which translates to "Parents Unknown". Foundling Wheels were used to drop off the unwanted newborns at orphanages and churches and this is when they were given new last names "Foundling Names", which became associated with orphans . People would recognize your surname as being an orphan and that you were dropped off at an orphanage or church. The Italian government changed this policy and said surnames were now given based on things like , the day of the week, location where baby was found, or perhaps what type of a day it was, pretty, gloomy, sad etc. The subject of foundling names is not exclusive to just the Italians.

23. Ships Lost at Sea.
Many people have been incorrectly listed as lost at sea. Prior to March 1819, passenger manifest were not correctly maintained or updated. This meant that any passenger could either sell their ticket, give away their ticket, or simply not show up for the ships departure and this change would never be reflected or annotated on the ships manifest. Over time, hundreds of ships and thousands of passengers were lost at sea. The U.S. government changed this with 'The Steerage Act' which was passed 2 Mar 1819. This act regulates the condition of the ship and it requires captains to provide a list of passengers with their destination information.
Here is an example. The Louisville (KY) Daily Courier, page 2, Friday 21 February 1851.
Robert Price (1810-1851), ID: 136943614, this article was recanting the story of Robert being buried at sea. His body was brought to shore where his brother John brought him to Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville, Kentucky for burial.
I have created 2 virtual cemeteries:
(a) Ships and People Lost at Sea
(b) Steamship "The SS Central America"

24. The SS Central America.
This side-wheel steamer was enroute from San Francisco to New York, and when it sank, it lost 425 of her 578 passengers and crew, including 30,000 pounds of gold. It was carrying gold dust which would be made into buillon and then made into gold coins. The loss of this ship has been compared to the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
The SS Central America sank on Saturday 12 September 1857 at Cape Hatteras off the north/ south carolina coast. Spellings of the passengers names are inconsistant. Three recovery efforts were made in 1988, 1991 and in 2014. Actual glass plate portrait photographs have been found intake, and their names are unknown. It is now known as " The Ship of Gold." I have found 183 of the passengers and crew. The goal is to find as many of the passengers and crew as possible. Where are these four:
-Crew Member, George E. Ashby, 2nd Engineer.
Update: I added Ashby (1822-1883)
-Passenger, Henry H. Childs of the firm of Childs and Dougherty of New York.
-Jabez Howe of the firm of Howe & Company, San Francisco, California.
- Theodore Paine, a merchant from San Franciso. His statement is at: The Liberator, page 3, Friday, 2 October 1857, Boston, MA.

Tip: Burials Unknown.
There are 2 ways to find them.
(1) For example: If your looking for a James Woodson b. 1855 and d. 1900 in Illinois. When you type this information, no record comes up.
Here is how you find him:
You need to leave the death location blank. You can type the name, birth and death year but leave the state blank.

(2) Go to the Findagrave home page.
To the right of the "Search" button is "More Search Options, click on it. First column is called "By Memorial Types", the 3rd option shows " Not Buried in a Cemetery."

25. State Insane Asylums, Blind Asylums, Deaf and Dumb Asylums, Orphan Asylums, Asylums for Feeble-Minded Children, and State Hospitals.
See my Virtual Cemetery --Asylums/Potters Field.

I focused my research on the Topeka State Hospital Cemetery and the Osawatomie State Hospital Burial Ground, both are in Kansas.

Most of these older state hospitals, and insane asylums and cemeteries were torn down, (or defunct, meaning no longer in existence), and a new structure was built in place of them. Many defunct cemeteries had the bodies disinterred and buried in a different cemetery. An example is Abraham DeHart (1809-1891), ID: 110830374, Arlington Cemetery, Drexel, Delaware, PA. DeHart was a 49 year supertintentdant at the Philanthropic Cemetery (Defunct), Philadelphia, PA. Two news articles are added from 1914 about this cemetery being closed down and all burials being reinterred at Arlington and other cemeteries.

Many people were unjustly sent to insane asylums or state hospitals. Patients, or "Inmates", were commited to these institutions involuntarily and usually without any evidence proving they were insane. Doctors at this time, were paid a fee for every patient they certified as insane. Some legal guardians, who were the sole-benefactors of the estate, would have this person committed "unjustly" to an insane asylum in order to receive their inheritance sooner.
In many cases, if a person sustained a painful injury which caused their behavior to change, they were viewed as being "temporarily insane", and sent to an asylum. Example is George P. Dykes (1857-1904), ID: 340 95 758, City of Mesa Cemetery, Mesa, Arizona.

Eight cases listed below.
(1a) Osawatomie Insane Asylum, Kansas.
Source: The Hutchinson (KS) News, page 10, Monday, 12 July 1915.

Lydia Doyle (1859-1944), ID: 395 99 630, Greenwood Cemetery, Newton, Kansas. Detailed news article is attached to her memorial. Her brothers George and Handsel Abbott had Lydia sent to an asylum to steal all the land her parents bequeathed to her. She gained her freedom and recovered all the stolen land. I linked her entire family to her.

(2b) Bloomingdale Insane Asylum, New York.
Source: The Star-Gazette, page 1, Saturday, 21 September 1901, Elmira, New York.

History on Bloomingdale Insane Asylum.
Source: The New York Times, page 2, Monday, 9 April 1866. Look at "Local Intelligence," The New- York Hospital", See: "Bloomingdale Asylum."

John Armstrong Chanler (1862-1935), ID: 35946079, Grace Episcopal Church Cemetery, Cismont, Virginia. I added an article about him being sent to the Bloomingdale Asylum. He escaped after 1 year, he had his day in court and proved he is not insane and fought to reclaim his fortune. His father was John Winthrop Chanler (1826-1877), listed as famous. He's related to the family of John Jacob Astor .

(3c) The Cook County Insane Asylum, known as " Dunning" operated from 1854-1912 in Chicago, Illinois. Railroad employee D.V. Connelly is sane but sent to the Insane Asylum. Source: The Daily Inter Ocean, page 16, Saturday, 24 December 1887, Chicago, Illinois.
" Nothing to Prevent Sane Persons Being Sent to the Asylum & Kept There Indefinetly." "A letter was written to point out the necessity for a new law governing the admission of person's claiming to be insane into the asylum." A physician who worked here was Dr. John Campbell Spray (1845-1906), ID: 127 246189, Graceland Cemetery, Chicago, Illinois.

(4d) Elizabeth Parsons Ware Packard (1816-1897), ID: 43674883, Rosehill Cemetery & Masoleum, Chicago, Illinois. She had different religious beliefs from her husband Reverand Theophilius Packard (1802-1885), ID: 184 373053. On just his word alone, with no proof of her being insane, he had her sent to the Jacksonville, Illinois Insane Asylum for 3 years. After her release he had her sent back to the asylum. Once she gained her freedom from the asylum, she realized Theophilius had sold everything she owned, and their home and took their children to another state. Women at this time did not have any rights to property or children so Elizabeth helped changed the law. In 1868 she wrote " The Prisoner's Hidden Life."

(5e) Samuel Phenes (1841-1919), ID: 378 23102, Willard Asylum Cemetery, Willard, Seneca, New York. Source: Buffalo (NY) Evening Express, page 4, Monday, 20 March 1922. Titled " Learn of Death of Father Who Died Three Years Ago." The family said they were never notified of his death which meant he was buried at the asylum cemetery.

(6e) Mary Maloney (1842-1921), ID: 128 615 681, Grant County Cemetery, (also known as Grant County Farm), Lancaster, Grant, Wisconsin. Source: Grant County Herald, page 1, Wednesday, 2 February 1921. The decision was made for her daughters, Lizzie, age 9 and Annie, age 7, will join their mother Mary in the asylum because they were deemed simple-minded.

(7 f) Rosina Bulwer-Lytton, (1802-1882), ID:219 64031, burial in England. Her famous husband Edward Bulwer-Lytton, (1803-1873), ID: 19131, had Rosina committed to an asylum. Her story, "A Blighted Life", describing her experience in the asylum, was published in 1880.

(8 g) Montee Ledderhos, (1895-1907),
ID: 95698653, Sonoma State Home Cemetery, California. Montee fell and hit his head. At age 4, Judge William P. Lawler adjudged Montee insane. He was sent to the Asylum at Napa.

Hospital staff did not have a uniformed dress code which made it difficult to differentiate between hospital staff and patients. These institutions were known to be inhumane, brutal and abusive to the patients. When some of these people were adjudged insane they chose to commit suicide instead of being sent to the insane asylum.

Nellie Bly, journalist, (1864-1922), memorial ID: 106, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York. In 1887, she went undercover in the Women's Lunatic Asylum on Blackwells Island in New York, to expose the atrocities being committed. Later that year, her articles, "10 Days in a Madhouse", were released to the public. In 2019, Lifetime released "Escaping the Madhouse: The Nellie Bly Story." Listed as Famous. See: The New York Correction History Society, www correctionhistory org for a detailed report.

Julius Chambers, editor and journalist, (1850-1920), ID: 978 246 97, Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York . In 1872, he went undercover for 10 days in the Bloomingdale Insane Asylum in New York. Chambers fought to expose the ill-treatment of patients and after his release, his articles were published. In 1876, he wrote " A Mad World and it's People," and his work helped change the laws pertaining to the insane. Two other champions in the cause to help the mentally ill were:
(a) Dr Thomas Story Kirkbride (1809-1883)
Memorial ID : 278 416 17. Buried at Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia, PA.
(b) Dorothea Dix (1802-1887) Memorial ID: 286. Buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, MA. Both listed as Famous.

26. Potters Field or Pauper Burials.
The term Potters Field originated in the Bible,
Matthew 27:7- " And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter's field, to bury strangers in."
In 1869, Potter's Field on Hart's Island in New York became a public cemetery. A pauper usually refers to a very poor person.

See the following news articles :

(a) The Buffalo (NY) Daily Republic, page 2, Monday, 17 July 1854, " Do We Really Need A Potter's Field?"

(b) The Brooklyn Citizen, page 12, Sunday, 3 February 1899, New York, "Our Last Road House."

(c) The Standard Union, page 16, Sunday, 27 January 1901, Brooklyn, New York,
"Romance and Tragedy of the Potter's Field."

(d) The New York Tribune, page 38, Sunday, 1 April 1900, New York. Article describes the schedule and transportation of unclaimed corpses to Hart's Island.

Burials in Potters Field.
Bodies were buried in boxes, with a number and location written on it. No grave markers. They were buried in mass graves, boxes stacked on top of one another, about 6 high and 25 in a row. See the New York Tribune, page 38, Sunday, 1 April 1900.

One record for all of these burials was kept by the undertaker who lived on the island. If this ledger were lost, so were all the records of those burials. A corrupt practice was exposed which showed corpses were being sold to medical hospitals for dissection. When a family member would give an undertaker money for the burial,he would keep that money and go to the county to get money for a Potters field burial. In many cases the sexton/undertaker could get away with this because family members were not allowed in potter's fields to witness the burial. Another record of this "individual burial", is the receipt the undertaker would have given the family member. These criminal acts were exposed and brought to justice.

A detailed article on this subject can be found on the memorial of George Childs (1841-1886), ID:144 706049, Topeka State Hospital Cemetery, Topeka, Kansas. Resource : The Topeka Daily Herald, pg 9, Saturday, 30 September 1905 Topeka, Kansas.

Many families never talked about their loved one's being sent to, or being buried at, one of these places. My experience has shown that very few people who are buried at an insane asylum or potter's field, are rarely linked to their parents or children. With each burial record, I always link family members together whenever possible.

Example: Robert Wells, (1838-1901), ID: 15 777 879, Topeka State Hospital Cemetery, Topeka, Kansas. When I found his memorial in this asylum, it was R.M. Wells d. 1901. After finding an article from his sister Mrs Phoebe A. Mason, only then was I able to find his full name, date of death and link his entire family to him.

A Poem titled " In Potter's Field", can be found on the memorial for Annie Dugan (1834-1930), ID: 116874542, Hart's Island, New York. Annie was born in Ireland. For the last 20 years of her life, she was an inmate at this asylum, and she had zero visitors. The hope here is that a random poem added to her memorial will bring people to visit her memorial.

27. Almshouses and Poor Farms.
They were built to house the sick, poor and less fortunate for free. In many instances, their next destination was the asylum. Look up the almshouse cemetery near the Long Island Expressway in New York.

28. Body Snatching.
Body snatchers were known as "resurrectionists", or "resurrection men". It was based on a fictional character called Jerry Cruncher, from the classic 1859 novel " A Tale of Two Cities", by Charles Dickens (1812-1870).
This practice of stealing cadavers for profit, was very popular up until the early 1900's. Medical Colleges needed these cadavers to practice on. Robbers would dig into the grave and steal the corpse , and sometimes, they stole bodies from morgues. On many occassions, the robbers were medical students, and physicians. The bodies of the poor and destitute were easier to obtain. I created a virtual cemetery called Body Snatching.

The Inter Ocean, page 3, Saturday, 19 January 1884, Chicago, Illinois. This article includes 23 physicians giving their professional opinions on paupers and medical institutions needing cadavers for research.

Otto Albert, (1861-1894), ID: 6343 4786, Wyuka Cemetery, Lincoln, Nebraska. There are two different detailed articles about Otto Albert's corpse being found in a dissection room:
The " Omaha (NE) Daily Bee, 1 December 1894," is added to his memorial.
The second article can be found at The Lincoln (NE) Evening Call, page 1, Monday, 3 December 1894.

Catherine Doehring (1836-1902), ID: 183 027850, Holy Cross and Saint Joseph Cemetery, Indianapolis, Indiana. I added a photo of her grave after her body was stolen. The source: Star-Tribune, page 45, Sunday, 27 February 1916, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), ID: 3770, buried at Stevenson Family Estate Grounds in Vailima, Samoa. Body Snatching was big business in the United Kingdom and Stevenson wrote "The Body Snatcher", which was published in 1884. It became the basis for the horror movie called "The Body Snatcher", released in 1945.

John Scott Harrison (1804-1878), ID: 8624, burial in North Bend, Ohio. Famous record. His father was President William Henry Harrison. His bio explains how his corpse was stolen by body snatchers.

Ralph H. Woods (1876-1896), ID: 190 990 420, Ricketts Cemetery, Kansas City, Clay, Missouri. Source: The Kansas City (MO) Gazette, page 1, Tuesday, 18 August 1896. His obituary is written in his bio and as of 23 March 2023, there is no mention of the fact that the body of Ralph H. Woods was stolen by body snatchers.

Dr Joseph C. Alexander (1859-1925), ID: 1644 5165, Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis, Indiana and Rufus Cantrell went on trial for being body snatchers. Cantrell confesses to stealing bodies from the following cemeteries in Indianapolis, Indiana: the Central Hospital for the insane, Ebenezer, German Luthern, Jones Chapel, and Mount Jackson. Source: The Courier-Journal, page 20, Sunday, 5 October 1902, Louisville, Kentucky. Full page article is titled "Indianapolis Stirred Over the Desecration of Graves."
When did Rufus Cantrell die and where is he buried?
Another well-known body snatcher was Hampton West, (1844-1904), ID: 46045754, Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Carrie T. Selvage (1856-1900), ID: 460130 23, Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis, Indiana.
Source: The Nashville (TN) Banner, page 7, Saturday, 12 June 1920. Selvage was a patient at a local hospital and walked to a nearby cemetery on 11 March 1900 and was never heard from again. She had the misfortune of running into the Rufus Cantrell gang as they were leaving the cemetery with stolen corpses. She was kidnapped, killed and her body was sold to a medical college. When her body was on a dissection table, a medical student recognized her from all the media coverage. Her corpse was untouched and was buried in Crown Hill. Twenty years later, her bones were found during construction on a building where the hospital stood.

Lena (Carey) Hodgin (1859-1902), ID: 363 82736, Summit Lawn Cemetery, Westfield, Indiana. Her husband Jesse E Hodgin, with the approval of the cemetery association, rigged her casket with nitroglycerin. It would only detonate, if disturbed. Source: The Topeka (KS) Daily Herald, page 1, Wednesday, 12 November 1902.
This is the first time I have found a case of this
type.

The African Burial Ground National Monument, Cemetery ID: 240 70 27, Manhattan, New York.

Two changes helped end body snatching; the use of Pine Box Caskets and Anatomy Boards. Corpses were now being buried in pine boxes which meant thieves had to dig up the entire coffin to expose the lid on the pine box. Anatomy Board's were created to send unclaimed corpses to medical institutions. These boards did not eliminate all the problems. There were times when a spouse would visit a family member at the insane asylum or the state hospital and tell the staff, " notify me when my spouse has passed away". The surviving spouse was not notified , or was notified when it was too late, your spouse was already buried in potters field.

Tip: Census Records, Death Certificates and Obituaries.
All of these sources all not always accurate. They do contain many errors. News articles from 1861-1865 that talk about soldiers being killed on the battlefield are just reports. Many soldiers that have been reported killed were still living.

29. Ancestry purchased Findagrave on 30 September 2013. I found out about this in 2022.
Educate yourself on the rules of Ancestry. Go to the home page, scroll to the very bottom.
Click on Terms and Conditions.
It says " Summary of Changes, Effective Date:
18 Sept 2023."

My work is protected under this copyright law.
The law states: Prior to 1978, only published work was protected. The Copyright Act of 1976, went into effect in 1978. This act extended copyright protection to all new works from the moment they are created. For unpublished work, (my bio page), the copyright term is the life of the author plus 70 years. The Fair Use Doctrine applies meaning its permissable to use limited portions of a work.

I, Thomas M. DeNardo, have not, nor have I ever given any permission to Ancestry, or any person, or entity, the right, to use, copy or sell the rights to my content, mainly my bio page. I claim copyright to my bio page content. When Ancestry purchased Findagrave in 2013, they had a legal obligation, in my opinion, to post this as a permanent fact on their home page. "ANCESTRY HAS PURCHASED FINDAGRAVE, READ OUR RULES."
New users are joing Findagrave everyday and they do not know it was purchased by Ancestry.

The original Findagrave died 20 August 2018. The 1950 U.S. Census was released to the public on Friday 31 March 2022. The 1960 Census will be released to the public on 1 April 2032. Census Records are released every 72 years after the census date.

30. The 1890 US Census.
I created a virtual cemetery called "1890 Census." I have 4 fragments in it; James Anderson, John Hayward and James Smith and George Singer.
The majority of this census was lost in a fire in January 1921. Headers from that census are: Name, Military, Relationship to head of household, White, Black, etc , Sex, Age, Marital Status, Place of Birth, Mother to how many children.

(a) The 11th Census of the United States:
-Supervisor's District No. 3
-Enumeration District No. 172
-County: Ellis, State: Texas
-City,Town, District, Beat,Civil Division: J. P. No 6
-Enumerated: 17 day of June, 1890
-Number of person's in this family: 6 (not visible).
This census was burned.
****James E. Smith (1828-1913) and wife Nancy (1831-1910) are buried at Mountain Peak Cemetery, Texas. These memorials show most of this 1890 Census.

- James E. Smith, (HOH) age 63, white, Alabama,
Confederate
--Nancy H. Smith, wife, 58, white, TN,
Children: 8-5. (she had 8 kids-only 5 survive).
-- Joseph T. Smith, son, 27, single, Texas
---Louella J. Smith, daughter, 21, single, Texas
--David Smith, son, 18, Texas

(b) There are two 1890 Census dated 12 June 1890 for the township of Mound County, McDonough, Illinois. The parents are buried at Bushnell Cemetery, Bushnell, McDonough, Illinois. A copy of this census is added to their memorials.
Husband William H. Anderson (1841-1916)
Wife Hester (Wilson) Anderson (1850-1917)

George A. Singer (1837-1917) and his family. ID:165 151 817, Industry, McDonough, Illinois

(c) William Anderson, b. Indiana, age 50, married
Hester Anderson b. Illinois, age 40 married
Jasper H. Anderson, b. Illinois, age 17, son
Charles H. Anderson, b. Illinois, age 14, son
John M. Anderson, b. Illinois, age 10, son.

(d) The 12 June 1890 Census for Washington, District of Columbia.
John Hayward (1835-1909), Arlington National Cemetery, Wife Mary (Ferris) Hayward (1838-1915). Their daughters were Mary, Emma, Mabel.

Here are some of the surviving fragments of the 1890 U.S. Census that do exisit :
1. Alabama‐-------------Perry County
2. District of Columbia
3. Georgia--‐-----Muscogee and Columbus County
4. Illinois---------McDonough County
5. Minnesota‐----Wright County
6. North Carolina---Cleveland and Gaston County
7. New Jersey----Hudson County
8. New York-------Suffolk and Westchester County
9. Ohio-------------Clinton and Hamilton County
10. South Dakota----Union County
11. Texas------Ellis,Hood, Rusk and Trinity County

31. Use census records as a source or a starting point in your search because they often times conflict with death certificates, obituaries, and other census records. Do not use or trust the information that is transcribed on "Cover Pages", to be accurate. Look at the actual document for the correct information.

Family Trees on Ancestry.
Do not make the mistake of copying or transferring census record data into your tree simply because " all these other trees are identical so it must be right." If you want the correct data, do your own research.

32. Death Certificates.
Keeping track of family genealogy was not always discussed. When information is being provided for a death certificate, many times the answer is "I think" instead of " I know for a fact."

33. Many people died in late December which means the obituary may be posted in January of the next year. The opposite of this is when the obituary is posted in early January, means you should look for the obituary in December of the previous year. This is when the death date versus the burial date becomes important.

34. Newspaper Obituaries.
If you are having trouble finding the year your relative died, do what I do. I narrow down my search (year range) by using obituaries . Find the obituaries for the parents and siblings that have a death year. Now look for "Survived By," it may also say " Was preceded in death by " or "Leaves Behind." Next step in your newspaper search is to change year range. I keep narrowing the range until I find the missing year of death.

Tip: Two other types exist:
1. Death Notice
2. Funeral Notice

Tip: Obituaries do not always tell you what city, and county the person died in but you can find the answer. When the obituary says for example: "she died at 2115 Hawthorne Street.", this means she died locally. Google the address and it will tell you the city. Now you can find the county. When the person died else where, it usually list the city or the county and state. Example: She died in Richmond, Virginia, or she died in Shawnee County, Kansas.

Obituaries from the 1700s to the early 1900s.
My research has taught me not to rely solely on the information in just one obituary. Many times obituaries had different spelling variations, or the dates of birth or death were different. Some provide a more detailed history of the deceased. Other differences included where they were born or where they died. To be more accurate in your research, look at more than one obituary for that person.

Interesting Story about a Civil War Veteran.
Source : The Pratt Republican, page 7, Thursday, 28 February 1889, Pratt, Kansas. " A Soldier Twice Dead, One Grave at Gettysburgh, Another in Germantown."
Stephen Kelly, served in Company E, 91st Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. One day, he was walking in Gettysburgh National Cemetery and he came upon his own grave! Kelly was very meticulous about making sure his name and unit were always marked on his belongings and the same was true for newspaper articles. Kelly had lost his canteen on the battlefield and it was found next to this soldier, who was buried in this grave. It was assumed the canteen belonged to this soldier. Kelly did everything he could to correct this error, but he was unsuccessful. So, for the next 25 years, he visited the grave of this unknown soldier to pay his respect. After Kelly's, death this gravestone was changed to "Unknown." To view this grave:
Unknown, ID:16206033, Gettysburgh National Cemetery, Gettysburgh, Pennsylvania. Stephen Kelly died 29 January 1889, burial location unknown.

The example below shows 4 differences for the same person, BaKeman, BaTeman, 1869 and 1871.

Oldest and last surviving Revolutionary War Veteran.
(a) Famous Memorial: Daniel Frederick Bakeman, (1759-1869) ID: 4061, Sandusky Cemetery
Freedom, Cattaraugus, New York.

(b) I found an article which conflicts with the surname BaTeman and 1869 death year. " The Ogle County Press, page 3, Polo, Illinois, Saturday April 29, 1871" which says the oldest and last known surviving revolutionary war veteran is Daniel Frederick Bateman, age 109.

35. Revolutionary War Website.
https: // revwarapps.org.
It is a free alphabetical database of historical documents to help prove you are related to a veteran of the revolutionary war.
This site list veterans of the revolutionary war who filed for their transcripts and pensions. This site is only for the Southern Campaigns, which include: Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia.
I created a virtual cemetery called D.A.R. and S.A.R.

Newspaper Terminology.
(a) "Relic" refers to the "wife of."
Example: Martha, relic of Amos Jones, died last Monday . Another word used for wife was "Consort."

(b) "Inst" is short for Instant.
It refers to the current month. Example:
Martha Jones, from MO, died on the 2nd inst.

(c) "Ult" is short for Ultimo. It means last month.
Example: Died- In this city, on the 27th ult, Martha, relic of Amos Jones.

(d) "Esq" is short for Esquire. Used for a person who is a lawyer. Example: Mr Wilson, Esq.,

(e) "Intestate" means there was no legal will.

(f) " Issue" refers to a person's children or grandchildren, direct lineal descendant.

If there is more then one article or document, attach them in numerical order. My source is always put on page one. Always provide the source for the obituary because it is the correct thing to do and it provides crucial information for researchers.

How to add Articles and Documents in numerical order. For a memorial you manage:
(a) Click on Photos
(b) Click on Arrange Photos .

For a memorial managed by someone else, always add them in reverse order.
Example. If you have a 3 page article:
(1) add the 3rd page first.
It will now appear as the last page.
(2) Add page 2, second
(3) Add page 1 last. It will now appear as page 1.

36. Public Domain and Copyright.
UPDATE: Listed at the top of my bio page.
Do your own research on this subject. I've read some university and law-firm websites, and they say if its registered or legally published in the United States before 31 December 1923, the copyright has expired in 2019. With unpublished work, the copyright extends multiple decades after the author died. I am currently going through all my "added and managed records", to remove any articles dated after 1923 and also those that do not have a source attached.

37. Family Reunions.
A newspaper subscription is a great resource to find Family Reunions. I've seen lineage described back to the 1700s . Example is from " The Buffalo Sunday Morning News, page 44, Sunday, 5 July 1915, Buffalo, New York." The article is titled "Jewett Family Annual Reunion Held in Buffalo. Distinguished Men and Women Bearing Notable Names and Boasting Ancient Lineage from all parts of the country." It includes information from 1855, photos of people, homes, and the Coat of Arms. The Jewetts had a patriotic song composed by H. J. Prentiss for the reunion of 1855, Tune : America", lyrics included.

38. Publications on Genealogy.

(a) Maj John Bolling II, ( 1700-1757), ID: 434 32041, Cobbs Cemetery, Enon, Virginia. Bolling is one of the oldest Colonial families in Virginia. " The Bolling Memoirs", written by Robert Bolling, born in 1738, was originally written in French.

(b) Richard Gentry (1846-1916), ID: 719 366 71, Forest Hill Cemetery, Kansas City, Missouri. He is a descendant of a line of Richard Gentry's who have been in the U.S. since 1676. He wrote a book titled " The Gentry Family In America, 1676-1909." It includes two thousand indexed names.
Source: The Kansas City (MO) Times, page 2, Tuesday, 9 May 1916.

(c). Dr. Charles Henry Stanley Davis, (1840-1917), ID: 611 733 28, In Memoriam Cemetery, Wallingford, Connecticut. I added an article to his memorial, its titled " A Complete History of Meridan, Wallingford and Cheshire, CT. Source: The Meridan (CT) Daily Republican, page 2, Wednesday, 11 May 1870. It is 800 pages. Here are just a few of the surnames in his book: Atwater, Beach, Bristol, Brockett,Carrington, Harriman, Hough, Ives, and Tuttle.
He was a member of numerous societies to include New England Historical Society.

(d) Reverand Henry A. Hazen, (1832-1900), ID: 615 11 733, Christian Street Cemetery, Hartford, Vermont. He wrote a " History of Billerica (MA) with a Genealogical Register."

(e) Reverand Edward Griffin Porter, (1837-1900), ID: 155 17 1967, Cedar Grove Cemetery, Dorchester, Massachusettes. **The following article is added to the memorials of Hazen and Porter , "Boston Evening Transcript, page 6, Friday, 30 March 1883, Massachusettes." A chapter is contributed by Porter called " The Mother of Billericay (MA) . It includes 200 pages with records prior to 1800. All families bearing the names Farley, Farmer, Jefts, Kidder, Kittredge, Pollard, Shed, and Toothaker, whose lines in this country go back to 1700, find their American progenitor in Billerica. He lists over 60 surnames.

(f) Henry Franklin Andrews (1844-1919),ID: 78712122, Exira Cemetery, Audubon, Iowa. " Audubon (IA) Republican, page 4, Thursday, 25 July 1901. Article says " Honorable H.F. Andrews is regarded as a pioneer in Genealogy work in Iowa." See the article added to his memorial.
Audubon County Journal, Exira, Iowa, page 4, Thursday, 22 May 1919. Read the 4th paragraph. His published works include The Andrews Family, 1890, The Hamlin Family in 1894, 1900 and 1902 and the History of Audubon County, Iowa, 1918. See memorial for Giles Hamlin (1622-1689), ID: 21317504, Riverside Cemetery, Middletown, Connecticut.

39. Free sources to help your research:
(a) Nationwide grave locator.
(gravelocator . cem . va . gov)
This is only for military burials in national
cemeteries.

(b) Soldier and Sailor System ( nps . gov)
Military information for civil war soldiers.

(c) Politicalgraveyard . com
Burial locations for Politicians

(d) Missouri Death Certificates (w. sos . mo .gov)
Free Death Certificates (1910-1973):
Each year more certificates are added.
Pre 1910 information---No death certificates.
This site also has a military collection
dating back to The War of 1812. Go to:
Home Page-- Browse Collections- -Civil
War-- Collections & Resources--Military

(e) llinois Statewide Database. ( w. ilsos .gov)

(f) Ohio Statewide Death Index. Civilian and
military. //resources.ohiohistory.org
Information only, no free death certificates
(1904- 1970) as of February 2023.

(g) Arizona Department of Health
(w . azdhs . gov)
Look for: Arizona Genealogy Record Search:
"Free death certificates"

(h) Erie Railroad Internet Employee Archives
http : // freepages dot rootsweb dot com
Google " Erie Railroad Magazine Deaths."

My goal on Findagrave has always been to do Quality Work, Not Quantity Work. I leave it all to future posterity. Copyright information: You may use my photos, but only in a dignified, respectful manner. Please remember to always give credit to the people who actually took the photos.

On 30 March 2020, I fulfilled my 2,000th photo request. You can transfer unwanted grave records to Findagrave by using the number 8. If you want to manage a non-famous record that is maintained by Findagrave, click on the Suggest Edits, then it will ask " do you want to manage it?", click yes. People listed as Famous are maintained by findagrave. On 22 February 2023, I had findagrave remove my name from all of my 72 famous bios. I do not need that recognition.

My name is Thomas M. DeNardo, currently residing in Missouri, originally from California. My parents George and Lois were born in New Jersey. My fathers dad, Matteo immigrated from Italy at age 6 with his brother James and mother Magdalena (Di Tommaso) Di Nardo. Matteo married my first generation Sicilian grandmother Colagera " Lillian" Domino in 1922, who was born in New Jersey. Our surname was originally spelled Di Nardo. By the time they were married, Matteo changed his name to Matthew Denardo. I chose to use DeNardo on this site. My mother's paternal grandparents were Joseph and Mary Ann (Eacrett) Cassidy, their parents immgrated from Ireland. Joseph and Mary Cassidys son was Harold Joseph Cassidy, my mothers father. Harold's parents died when he was about age three or four. My mother's maternal grandparents were Jacob and Emma (Sicknick) Bagger, who immigrated from Haderslav, Denmark.

I was honorably discharged from the U.S. Air Force after serving 10 years on active duty. After my military service, I completed my Bachelors Degree at the former Central Missouri State University in Warrensburg, Missouri in 2000. I retired from my government job in Missouri after 20 years of faithful service. My ashes will be buried in California.

I have written my bio page to help assist, and educate, current and future researchers. The intention is that it be used as a resource document. All my information and tips are from my own personal experiences in researching the deceased. Numbered 1-39.

Library of Congress (www loc gov)
Every year on January 1st, a new year of copyright material has entered the public domain. "On 1 January 2021, copyright works from 1925 will enter the public domain."
Read the 1998 Copyright Term Extension Act.
Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution grants Congress the power, " To Promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to authors and inventors the exclusive Rights to their respective Writings and Discoveries."
**READ ALL THE RULES PERTAINING TO COPYRIGHT. DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH ON THIS SUBJECT.**

1. The civil war photograph posted up above is at civilwarphotosleuth com/project/94 by Brian Downey, (ID:48681317).Can you help identify this Union Officer, rank is 2Lt. What company did he serve under? On the reverse side of the photo it says Partridge's Gallery, Wheeling West Virginia. It has a used blue 2 cent revenue stamp on it, which was issued in 1862. They are called Carte de Visite. The CDV cards were used from 1864- 1866. They are 2.5 by 3.5 in size. Research Frenchman Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi (1819-1889 France).

2. The terms Graveyard and Cemetery.
Graveyard refers to burials in a churchyard, next to a church. As graveyards filled up, cemeteries became necessary. The first known cemetery in the United States is the Standish Burial Ground in Duxbury, Massachusetts. Named after Myles Standish (1584-1656), ID: 971, it's considered a colonial cemetery and it includes many burials from the Mayflower.

Tip. Do you know the difference between:
(a) Gravestone
(b) Headstone
(c) Tombstone

3. In 1995, Jim Tipton, ID Number 1, created Findagrave . When I first joined this site back in July 1999, we had to mail our photos to Utah and they would upload the records, which meant I did not get credit for many records. Anytime you see my photos attached to famous records dated before Dec 2001, means I created the records but only credited with the photo and some have been replaced. The earliest photo I added was for William C. Quantrill (1837-1865) on 10 April 2000, in the Confederate Cemetery, Higginsville, Missouri. Once my record became Famous, their policy back then was to remove contributors name and replace it with "Maintained by Findagrave", which began in August 2000. Eventually, they changed this so the contributors name was always listed as "Created by Tom DeNardo" and also "Maintained by Findagrave." Our uploaded photos to famous records used to include the dates. Three of my earliest famous records with "Created by Tom DeNardo", are (1) Freeman Davis (1842-1899), Medal of Honor, Oak Hill Cemetery, Butler, Missouri, added 25 September 2001, and (2) John Hack MOH, (1842-1933) Maple Grove Cemetery, Trenton, Missouri, added 14 November 2001, (3) Daniel Read Anthony Jr (1870-1931), Leavenworth National Cemetery, Kansas, added 17 October 2001. Some of my older famous photos still include the date uploaded. When they mailed my photos back to me, they included a magnet with their logo on it.

4. I have added famous records and photos in Kansas, but not given credit for include: William Beach, Camillo Carr, Edward Hatch, Henry Leavenworth, Medal of Honor recipients; Roger Durham, Harry Bell, Fitz Lee, George Miller, Edward Pengally, and Albert Sale, also, Lucien Baker, Daniel Read Anthony, Sr, Maj Gen George Dietzler, Maj Gen Richard Curtis Moore, Brig Gen Thomas Moonlight, George Yates, killers Perry Edward Smith and Richard Hickock. Other famous records in Missouri include: John William Fletcher, James Goodloe, Alexander William Doniphan, Brig Gen James Totten, MOH Sterling Gault, Henry Louis Routt, William Cowherd, Laura (Hawkins) Fraser, of Samuel Clemens fame and his children in Hannibal, MO and including Joe " Indian Joe" Douglass (1821-1923) , Mt Mora: Robert Coontz, Gov Willard Hall, David Heaton and so many more that credit was not given to me as "created by". Many of my once-famous records were duplicated and accepted as famous.

5. Options to help make your search for a memorial easier on Findagrave.
(a) Go to the homepage or click on Memorials.
(b) To the right of the Search Button" there is
" More Search Options" Click on it.
(c) There are 3 categories: 1. Memorial Types, 2. Memorials, 3. Include. (18 total options.)

Tip: Gregorian Calendar is D-M-Y.
Day-Month-Year: 20 June 1865 .

6. PROGENITOR: A person or thing from which a person is descended or originates from. George Payne (1670-1744), ID: 11294367, Payne Cemetery, Goochland, Virginia. The Payne family of Fluvanna County Virginia. An example is George Payne and the family bible.

7. Adding your relationship to certain family members you manage.
(a) Click on Edit Memorial
(b) Right below "Famous: Yes or No", you will see
(c) CLOSE RELATIVE ? Click Yes.
(d) Now you choose your relationship such as
Child or Parent or Grandparent. Click on any of these words and you will see the word Options
(e) Options gives you things like Great- grandchild or Great-Nephew, Adoptive Child.
(f) The result will appear next to
--Maintained By or Created By-- Example:
Created by: Tom DeNardo • Relative - Child

Tip: Updates on Findagrave can be found at:
(a) The homepage- scroll down to the bottom of the page.
(b) Click on "Site Map."
(c) Look under the heading "About Findagrave."
(d) Click on "News & Announcements "

8. Use the Cemetery Map to find a memorial by name. It does not work on Defunct Cemeteries.
Click on the cemetery name .
(a) Just below this you will see three words going from left to right: ABOUT, PHOTOS, MAP
(b) Click on Map
(c) Scroll down below the aerial view of the cemetery
(d) Click on MORE TIPS.
It explains what the numbers and colors mean.
(e) A window opens up to allow you to "Search This Map Area to find a memorial by name.
(a) Numbers with different colors appear on the map.
(b) Here is how you turn them off:
- There are two buttons . The left side button removes the numbers from the map. Swipe left.
--Then you can type the name. The gravestone will appear on the map.

9. Updates created on Findagrave in May 2023:
(1) " Tag A Veteran."
(a) Click on Edit Memorial
(b) Scroll down to "Designations"
• Designate as a Veteran
A gray circle with a "White V" in it will appear at the end of the surname.

(2) " Add Grave Marker Options."
(a) Click on Edit Memorial
(b) Scroll down and click on "Additional Grave Marker Options"
• Label as Cenotaph
• Label as Monument

10. Grave Photo Order. My preference is:
(a)The Actual Person.
(b)The individual's gravestone.
When a family is buried near one another, their gravestones always look similar. When you scroll through the cemetery on this site, you need too see each person's individual, yet, similar gravestone to make your research easier.
(c) Family Surname Gravestone. This needs to be last to avoid confusion.

11. Grave Stones.
I never change what's on the gravestone. It can misdirect researchers and it can cause a duplicate memorial to be created.
Example: Catherine "Edith" Burris, (1882-1951), ID: 19794047, Riverview Cemetery, Aurora, Indiana. I spent 15 minutes looking for Catherine's obituary. Nothing came up. I decided to look at her gravestone and it says " Edith Burris", no mention of Catherine on the gravestone. When I looked up the obituary for Edith Burris, it came up immediately!
If you are having trouble finding a person, use my method; leave the first name blank and just add the last name and year of death.

Family grave stones usually look identical when they are in the same cemetery. If your unsure of who a person is related to, compare the gravestones. When you find a stone that says for example; "Sarah, dau of G.& E. Jones", make your research easier by linking them together right away. Transcribe what you see on the gravestone. Many times the death date on the gravestone is the burial date. When you see for example: Mary Jones 1865-1895 and husband Henry Jones 1863-19__, the blank space in my experience has shown that he is buried in a different cemetery and possibly a different state, and this is usually because the spouse died at a young age. Burial Customs and Religions often determined whether or not your grave faced west or east, and if your married , it determined which side you were buried on, the left or right side of your spouse. Try to transcribe the hard to read inscriptions because they contain valuable information.

12. Birth and Death Locations.
If your unsure of where this person was born or died, leave it blank. NEVER ASSUME because then you enter incorrect information. I have corrected countless memorials using an obituary . Example is Dr Walter Cary (1818-1881), ID: 610 78499, Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo, New York. His record showed died in Buffalo, NY. The obituary says he died in Italy, cremated in Milan, Italy and his ashes were flown to New York via England.

13. Gravestone Photos.
When I fulfill photo request, I use one particular pink rose to lay on the stone. It makes each of my photos, "my unique signature photo." Always crop photos and documents to make them look professional.
Treat grave stone photos with respect, meaning take the type of quality photos you would want for your relatives gravestones.
My photos usually include a landmark of some type to help anyone find the grave on their own. I began using the rose as early as 2015, both for photo request and in creating a new memorial. Include burial plot location. See my virtual cemetery "Signature Flower."

14. Toponymic Surnames.
Also called topographic surnames, is a surname derived from a place name. Typonymic surnames was a trend linking people to their places of origin.
Example: my surname was originally "Di Nardo," from Nardo, Italy. Another example was actress Ann Bancroft, (1931-2005). ID: 11121391, Kensico Cemetery, Valhalla, New York. Her real name was Anna Maria Italiano. Both of her parents have toponymic surnames; her father was Italiano and mothers name was Di Napoli.

Tip: Here is how you correct a photo that was added sideways or upside down.
(a) Click on the photo.
(b) Click on the " rotation icon."

Here is a message sent to me on 17 January 2015 by Dave Davenport, ID: 475 29 177. It is about photos and edits I sent to him pertaining to Paul Riordan, (1920-1944), World War II, MOH recipient buried at Mount Olivet Cemetery, Kansas City, Missouri. I told Mr. Davenport that Riordans gravestone is in the family plot far away from his MOH stone which stands alone in the cemetery entrance. I included a long distant photo to show him.
" This has been a great morning, not only did I get all the info you sent but I also discovered that Paul Riordan (one of the siblings), was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. My wife was not aware of that. This is such a great web site. Thanks again."

15. Here are 2 ways to create your Virtual Cemetery.
(1). This option only allows you to Create.
(a) Pull up the memorial
(b) Hit the "Save To" button
(c) It brings up your "Virtual Cemetery List.
Create a name. Then hit "Save"

(2). There are two options here:
Add a Virtual Cemetery Or
Add a Memorial to your New Virtual Cemetery.
(a) Pull up memorial.
(b) Hit Edit.
(c) Look below the "Save Changes". You will see:
--Add a Virtual Cemetery or Choose Cemetery--.

(3) Now that you have created a Virtual Cemetery, here is another way to ADD more:
When your on your bio page, Scroll down until you see your list of virtual cemeteries. Now, look to the right of them and you will see "ADD."

Saving a memorial to your Virtual Cemeteries.
(a) Pull up the memorial.
(b) Hit "Save To"

16. Four Short-Cut Features to:
Edit, Transfer, Delete, or Report a Duplicate Memorial.

(a) Pull up the memorial you manage.
Next to the Edit button, there is a down arrow, click on it
(b) The following options appear:
Transfer Management,
Report a Duplicate or Delete Memorial.

17. Nicknames, Middle Names, Abbreviations.
Many people used these names their entire lives, and its reflected on their gravestones. Utilize all variations in your research.
Examples are:
(a) Minnie: Minerva or Wilhelmina
(b) Maggie: Margaret
(c) Charlotte: Lottie or Lola
(d) Carrie: Caroline or Carolyn
(e) Sadie: Sarah
(f) Etta, Hattie, Hetty: Harriet or Henrietta
(g) Nellie: Eleanor
(h) Jas-James, Jno-John, Chas-Charles

18. Global Positioning System Coordinates.
Added to this site on 25 June 2019. The GPS location is very important to help locate a grave if the gravestone is ever missing, or if it is buried under dirt and grass. This site allows us to lock in the coordinates. Go to Edit Memorial, Scroll down to the feature titled " Pin On Maps", now click on it, you will see the location pin appear on the map, click on the pin. The GPS coordinates are now added. Hit the save button; once for GPS, now hit Save Suggestions for the memorial.

19. Researching maiden names from the 1800s to the early 1900s:
(a) Mary T. Lincoln, the 'T'usually represents her maiden name, not her middle name.
(b) Robert Todd Lincoln. The first born son's middle name is usually his mothers maiden name. When you see (nee) next to a woman's name, it refers to her maiden name: Mary Lincoln (nee Todd).

20. Henry Sassaman Dotterer (1841-1903), Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia, PA, ID: 739 981 57. Authored a monthly publication titled "The Perkiomen Region, Past & Present." Source: The Harrisburg (PA) Telegraph, page 7, Saturday, 23 September 1899. It has a very detailed family genealogy list of surnames dating back to the 1600s. See: Francis Daniel Pastorius (1651-1720), Germantown, PA. Memorial ID: 159 702 69. Nathan Evans, (1711-1777), ID: 110540268, Bangor Episocal Cemetery, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The same article is attached to all three memorials.

21. Tip: In researching any subject, if you hit that brick wall, ask Google the same research question using different search criteria and you will get your questioned answered.

22. Italian Foundling Surnames.
In Italian Trovatella(fem), Trovatello(Masc) means "Foundling", which translates to "Parents Unknown". Foundling Wheels were used to drop off the unwanted newborns at orphanages and churches and this is when they were given new last names "Foundling Names", which became associated with orphans . People would recognize your surname as being an orphan and that you were dropped off at an orphanage or church. The Italian government changed this policy and said surnames were now given based on things like , the day of the week, location where baby was found, or perhaps what type of a day it was, pretty, gloomy, sad etc. The subject of foundling names is not exclusive to just the Italians.

23. Ships Lost at Sea.
Many people have been incorrectly listed as lost at sea. Prior to March 1819, passenger manifest were not correctly maintained or updated. This meant that any passenger could either sell their ticket, give away their ticket, or simply not show up for the ships departure and this change would never be reflected or annotated on the ships manifest. Over time, hundreds of ships and thousands of passengers were lost at sea. The U.S. government changed this with 'The Steerage Act' which was passed 2 Mar 1819. This act regulates the condition of the ship and it requires captains to provide a list of passengers with their destination information.
Here is an example. The Louisville (KY) Daily Courier, page 2, Friday 21 February 1851.
Robert Price (1810-1851), ID: 136943614, this article was recanting the story of Robert being buried at sea. His body was brought to shore where his brother John brought him to Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville, Kentucky for burial.
I have created 2 virtual cemeteries:
(a) Ships and People Lost at Sea
(b) Steamship "The SS Central America"

24. The SS Central America.
This side-wheel steamer was enroute from San Francisco to New York, and when it sank, it lost 425 of her 578 passengers and crew, including 30,000 pounds of gold. It was carrying gold dust which would be made into buillon and then made into gold coins. The loss of this ship has been compared to the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
The SS Central America sank on Saturday 12 September 1857 at Cape Hatteras off the north/ south carolina coast. Spellings of the passengers names are inconsistant. Three recovery efforts were made in 1988, 1991 and in 2014. Actual glass plate portrait photographs have been found intake, and their names are unknown. It is now known as " The Ship of Gold." I have found 183 of the passengers and crew. The goal is to find as many of the passengers and crew as possible. Where are these four:
-Crew Member, George E. Ashby, 2nd Engineer.
Update: I added Ashby (1822-1883)
-Passenger, Henry H. Childs of the firm of Childs and Dougherty of New York.
-Jabez Howe of the firm of Howe & Company, San Francisco, California.
- Theodore Paine, a merchant from San Franciso. His statement is at: The Liberator, page 3, Friday, 2 October 1857, Boston, MA.

Tip: Burials Unknown.
There are 2 ways to find them.
(1) For example: If your looking for a James Woodson b. 1855 and d. 1900 in Illinois. When you type this information, no record comes up.
Here is how you find him:
You need to leave the death location blank. You can type the name, birth and death year but leave the state blank.

(2) Go to the Findagrave home page.
To the right of the "Search" button is "More Search Options, click on it. First column is called "By Memorial Types", the 3rd option shows " Not Buried in a Cemetery."

25. State Insane Asylums, Blind Asylums, Deaf and Dumb Asylums, Orphan Asylums, Asylums for Feeble-Minded Children, and State Hospitals.
See my Virtual Cemetery --Asylums/Potters Field.

I focused my research on the Topeka State Hospital Cemetery and the Osawatomie State Hospital Burial Ground, both are in Kansas.

Most of these older state hospitals, and insane asylums and cemeteries were torn down, (or defunct, meaning no longer in existence), and a new structure was built in place of them. Many defunct cemeteries had the bodies disinterred and buried in a different cemetery. An example is Abraham DeHart (1809-1891), ID: 110830374, Arlington Cemetery, Drexel, Delaware, PA. DeHart was a 49 year supertintentdant at the Philanthropic Cemetery (Defunct), Philadelphia, PA. Two news articles are added from 1914 about this cemetery being closed down and all burials being reinterred at Arlington and other cemeteries.

Many people were unjustly sent to insane asylums or state hospitals. Patients, or "Inmates", were commited to these institutions involuntarily and usually without any evidence proving they were insane. Doctors at this time, were paid a fee for every patient they certified as insane. Some legal guardians, who were the sole-benefactors of the estate, would have this person committed "unjustly" to an insane asylum in order to receive their inheritance sooner.
In many cases, if a person sustained a painful injury which caused their behavior to change, they were viewed as being "temporarily insane", and sent to an asylum. Example is George P. Dykes (1857-1904), ID: 340 95 758, City of Mesa Cemetery, Mesa, Arizona.

Eight cases listed below.
(1a) Osawatomie Insane Asylum, Kansas.
Source: The Hutchinson (KS) News, page 10, Monday, 12 July 1915.

Lydia Doyle (1859-1944), ID: 395 99 630, Greenwood Cemetery, Newton, Kansas. Detailed news article is attached to her memorial. Her brothers George and Handsel Abbott had Lydia sent to an asylum to steal all the land her parents bequeathed to her. She gained her freedom and recovered all the stolen land. I linked her entire family to her.

(2b) Bloomingdale Insane Asylum, New York.
Source: The Star-Gazette, page 1, Saturday, 21 September 1901, Elmira, New York.

History on Bloomingdale Insane Asylum.
Source: The New York Times, page 2, Monday, 9 April 1866. Look at "Local Intelligence," The New- York Hospital", See: "Bloomingdale Asylum."

John Armstrong Chanler (1862-1935), ID: 35946079, Grace Episcopal Church Cemetery, Cismont, Virginia. I added an article about him being sent to the Bloomingdale Asylum. He escaped after 1 year, he had his day in court and proved he is not insane and fought to reclaim his fortune. His father was John Winthrop Chanler (1826-1877), listed as famous. He's related to the family of John Jacob Astor .

(3c) The Cook County Insane Asylum, known as " Dunning" operated from 1854-1912 in Chicago, Illinois. Railroad employee D.V. Connelly is sane but sent to the Insane Asylum. Source: The Daily Inter Ocean, page 16, Saturday, 24 December 1887, Chicago, Illinois.
" Nothing to Prevent Sane Persons Being Sent to the Asylum & Kept There Indefinetly." "A letter was written to point out the necessity for a new law governing the admission of person's claiming to be insane into the asylum." A physician who worked here was Dr. John Campbell Spray (1845-1906), ID: 127 246189, Graceland Cemetery, Chicago, Illinois.

(4d) Elizabeth Parsons Ware Packard (1816-1897), ID: 43674883, Rosehill Cemetery & Masoleum, Chicago, Illinois. She had different religious beliefs from her husband Reverand Theophilius Packard (1802-1885), ID: 184 373053. On just his word alone, with no proof of her being insane, he had her sent to the Jacksonville, Illinois Insane Asylum for 3 years. After her release he had her sent back to the asylum. Once she gained her freedom from the asylum, she realized Theophilius had sold everything she owned, and their home and took their children to another state. Women at this time did not have any rights to property or children so Elizabeth helped changed the law. In 1868 she wrote " The Prisoner's Hidden Life."

(5e) Samuel Phenes (1841-1919), ID: 378 23102, Willard Asylum Cemetery, Willard, Seneca, New York. Source: Buffalo (NY) Evening Express, page 4, Monday, 20 March 1922. Titled " Learn of Death of Father Who Died Three Years Ago." The family said they were never notified of his death which meant he was buried at the asylum cemetery.

(6e) Mary Maloney (1842-1921), ID: 128 615 681, Grant County Cemetery, (also known as Grant County Farm), Lancaster, Grant, Wisconsin. Source: Grant County Herald, page 1, Wednesday, 2 February 1921. The decision was made for her daughters, Lizzie, age 9 and Annie, age 7, will join their mother Mary in the asylum because they were deemed simple-minded.

(7 f) Rosina Bulwer-Lytton, (1802-1882), ID:219 64031, burial in England. Her famous husband Edward Bulwer-Lytton, (1803-1873), ID: 19131, had Rosina committed to an asylum. Her story, "A Blighted Life", describing her experience in the asylum, was published in 1880.

(8 g) Montee Ledderhos, (1895-1907),
ID: 95698653, Sonoma State Home Cemetery, California. Montee fell and hit his head. At age 4, Judge William P. Lawler adjudged Montee insane. He was sent to the Asylum at Napa.

Hospital staff did not have a uniformed dress code which made it difficult to differentiate between hospital staff and patients. These institutions were known to be inhumane, brutal and abusive to the patients. When some of these people were adjudged insane they chose to commit suicide instead of being sent to the insane asylum.

Nellie Bly, journalist, (1864-1922), memorial ID: 106, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York. In 1887, she went undercover in the Women's Lunatic Asylum on Blackwells Island in New York, to expose the atrocities being committed. Later that year, her articles, "10 Days in a Madhouse", were released to the public. In 2019, Lifetime released "Escaping the Madhouse: The Nellie Bly Story." Listed as Famous. See: The New York Correction History Society, www correctionhistory org for a detailed report.

Julius Chambers, editor and journalist, (1850-1920), ID: 978 246 97, Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York . In 1872, he went undercover for 10 days in the Bloomingdale Insane Asylum in New York. Chambers fought to expose the ill-treatment of patients and after his release, his articles were published. In 1876, he wrote " A Mad World and it's People," and his work helped change the laws pertaining to the insane. Two other champions in the cause to help the mentally ill were:
(a) Dr Thomas Story Kirkbride (1809-1883)
Memorial ID : 278 416 17. Buried at Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia, PA.
(b) Dorothea Dix (1802-1887) Memorial ID: 286. Buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, MA. Both listed as Famous.

26. Potters Field or Pauper Burials.
The term Potters Field originated in the Bible,
Matthew 27:7- " And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter's field, to bury strangers in."
In 1869, Potter's Field on Hart's Island in New York became a public cemetery. A pauper usually refers to a very poor person.

See the following news articles :

(a) The Buffalo (NY) Daily Republic, page 2, Monday, 17 July 1854, " Do We Really Need A Potter's Field?"

(b) The Brooklyn Citizen, page 12, Sunday, 3 February 1899, New York, "Our Last Road House."

(c) The Standard Union, page 16, Sunday, 27 January 1901, Brooklyn, New York,
"Romance and Tragedy of the Potter's Field."

(d) The New York Tribune, page 38, Sunday, 1 April 1900, New York. Article describes the schedule and transportation of unclaimed corpses to Hart's Island.

Burials in Potters Field.
Bodies were buried in boxes, with a number and location written on it. No grave markers. They were buried in mass graves, boxes stacked on top of one another, about 6 high and 25 in a row. See the New York Tribune, page 38, Sunday, 1 April 1900.

One record for all of these burials was kept by the undertaker who lived on the island. If this ledger were lost, so were all the records of those burials. A corrupt practice was exposed which showed corpses were being sold to medical hospitals for dissection. When a family member would give an undertaker money for the burial,he would keep that money and go to the county to get money for a Potters field burial. In many cases the sexton/undertaker could get away with this because family members were not allowed in potter's fields to witness the burial. Another record of this "individual burial", is the receipt the undertaker would have given the family member. These criminal acts were exposed and brought to justice.

A detailed article on this subject can be found on the memorial of George Childs (1841-1886), ID:144 706049, Topeka State Hospital Cemetery, Topeka, Kansas. Resource : The Topeka Daily Herald, pg 9, Saturday, 30 September 1905 Topeka, Kansas.

Many families never talked about their loved one's being sent to, or being buried at, one of these places. My experience has shown that very few people who are buried at an insane asylum or potter's field, are rarely linked to their parents or children. With each burial record, I always link family members together whenever possible.

Example: Robert Wells, (1838-1901), ID: 15 777 879, Topeka State Hospital Cemetery, Topeka, Kansas. When I found his memorial in this asylum, it was R.M. Wells d. 1901. After finding an article from his sister Mrs Phoebe A. Mason, only then was I able to find his full name, date of death and link his entire family to him.

A Poem titled " In Potter's Field", can be found on the memorial for Annie Dugan (1834-1930), ID: 116874542, Hart's Island, New York. Annie was born in Ireland. For the last 20 years of her life, she was an inmate at this asylum, and she had zero visitors. The hope here is that a random poem added to her memorial will bring people to visit her memorial.

27. Almshouses and Poor Farms.
They were built to house the sick, poor and less fortunate for free. In many instances, their next destination was the asylum. Look up the almshouse cemetery near the Long Island Expressway in New York.

28. Body Snatching.
Body snatchers were known as "resurrectionists", or "resurrection men". It was based on a fictional character called Jerry Cruncher, from the classic 1859 novel " A Tale of Two Cities", by Charles Dickens (1812-1870).
This practice of stealing cadavers for profit, was very popular up until the early 1900's. Medical Colleges needed these cadavers to practice on. Robbers would dig into the grave and steal the corpse , and sometimes, they stole bodies from morgues. On many occassions, the robbers were medical students, and physicians. The bodies of the poor and destitute were easier to obtain. I created a virtual cemetery called Body Snatching.

The Inter Ocean, page 3, Saturday, 19 January 1884, Chicago, Illinois. This article includes 23 physicians giving their professional opinions on paupers and medical institutions needing cadavers for research.

Otto Albert, (1861-1894), ID: 6343 4786, Wyuka Cemetery, Lincoln, Nebraska. There are two different detailed articles about Otto Albert's corpse being found in a dissection room:
The " Omaha (NE) Daily Bee, 1 December 1894," is added to his memorial.
The second article can be found at The Lincoln (NE) Evening Call, page 1, Monday, 3 December 1894.

Catherine Doehring (1836-1902), ID: 183 027850, Holy Cross and Saint Joseph Cemetery, Indianapolis, Indiana. I added a photo of her grave after her body was stolen. The source: Star-Tribune, page 45, Sunday, 27 February 1916, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), ID: 3770, buried at Stevenson Family Estate Grounds in Vailima, Samoa. Body Snatching was big business in the United Kingdom and Stevenson wrote "The Body Snatcher", which was published in 1884. It became the basis for the horror movie called "The Body Snatcher", released in 1945.

John Scott Harrison (1804-1878), ID: 8624, burial in North Bend, Ohio. Famous record. His father was President William Henry Harrison. His bio explains how his corpse was stolen by body snatchers.

Ralph H. Woods (1876-1896), ID: 190 990 420, Ricketts Cemetery, Kansas City, Clay, Missouri. Source: The Kansas City (MO) Gazette, page 1, Tuesday, 18 August 1896. His obituary is written in his bio and as of 23 March 2023, there is no mention of the fact that the body of Ralph H. Woods was stolen by body snatchers.

Dr Joseph C. Alexander (1859-1925), ID: 1644 5165, Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis, Indiana and Rufus Cantrell went on trial for being body snatchers. Cantrell confesses to stealing bodies from the following cemeteries in Indianapolis, Indiana: the Central Hospital for the insane, Ebenezer, German Luthern, Jones Chapel, and Mount Jackson. Source: The Courier-Journal, page 20, Sunday, 5 October 1902, Louisville, Kentucky. Full page article is titled "Indianapolis Stirred Over the Desecration of Graves."
When did Rufus Cantrell die and where is he buried?
Another well-known body snatcher was Hampton West, (1844-1904), ID: 46045754, Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Carrie T. Selvage (1856-1900), ID: 460130 23, Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis, Indiana.
Source: The Nashville (TN) Banner, page 7, Saturday, 12 June 1920. Selvage was a patient at a local hospital and walked to a nearby cemetery on 11 March 1900 and was never heard from again. She had the misfortune of running into the Rufus Cantrell gang as they were leaving the cemetery with stolen corpses. She was kidnapped, killed and her body was sold to a medical college. When her body was on a dissection table, a medical student recognized her from all the media coverage. Her corpse was untouched and was buried in Crown Hill. Twenty years later, her bones were found during construction on a building where the hospital stood.

Lena (Carey) Hodgin (1859-1902), ID: 363 82736, Summit Lawn Cemetery, Westfield, Indiana. Her husband Jesse E Hodgin, with the approval of the cemetery association, rigged her casket with nitroglycerin. It would only detonate, if disturbed. Source: The Topeka (KS) Daily Herald, page 1, Wednesday, 12 November 1902.
This is the first time I have found a case of this
type.

The African Burial Ground National Monument, Cemetery ID: 240 70 27, Manhattan, New York.

Two changes helped end body snatching; the use of Pine Box Caskets and Anatomy Boards. Corpses were now being buried in pine boxes which meant thieves had to dig up the entire coffin to expose the lid on the pine box. Anatomy Board's were created to send unclaimed corpses to medical institutions. These boards did not eliminate all the problems. There were times when a spouse would visit a family member at the insane asylum or the state hospital and tell the staff, " notify me when my spouse has passed away". The surviving spouse was not notified , or was notified when it was too late, your spouse was already buried in potters field.

Tip: Census Records, Death Certificates and Obituaries.
All of these sources all not always accurate. They do contain many errors. News articles from 1861-1865 that talk about soldiers being killed on the battlefield are just reports. Many soldiers that have been reported killed were still living.

29. Ancestry purchased Findagrave on 30 September 2013. I found out about this in 2022.
Educate yourself on the rules of Ancestry. Go to the home page, scroll to the very bottom.
Click on Terms and Conditions.
It says " Summary of Changes, Effective Date:
18 Sept 2023."

My work is protected under this copyright law.
The law states: Prior to 1978, only published work was protected. The Copyright Act of 1976, went into effect in 1978. This act extended copyright protection to all new works from the moment they are created. For unpublished work, (my bio page), the copyright term is the life of the author plus 70 years. The Fair Use Doctrine applies meaning its permissable to use limited portions of a work.

I, Thomas M. DeNardo, have not, nor have I ever given any permission to Ancestry, or any person, or entity, the right, to use, copy or sell the rights to my content, mainly my bio page. I claim copyright to my bio page content. When Ancestry purchased Findagrave in 2013, they had a legal obligation, in my opinion, to post this as a permanent fact on their home page. "ANCESTRY HAS PURCHASED FINDAGRAVE, READ OUR RULES."
New users are joing Findagrave everyday and they do not know it was purchased by Ancestry.

The original Findagrave died 20 August 2018. The 1950 U.S. Census was released to the public on Friday 31 March 2022. The 1960 Census will be released to the public on 1 April 2032. Census Records are released every 72 years after the census date.

30. The 1890 US Census.
I created a virtual cemetery called "1890 Census." I have 4 fragments in it; James Anderson, John Hayward and James Smith and George Singer.
The majority of this census was lost in a fire in January 1921. Headers from that census are: Name, Military, Relationship to head of household, White, Black, etc , Sex, Age, Marital Status, Place of Birth, Mother to how many children.

(a) The 11th Census of the United States:
-Supervisor's District No. 3
-Enumeration District No. 172
-County: Ellis, State: Texas
-City,Town, District, Beat,Civil Division: J. P. No 6
-Enumerated: 17 day of June, 1890
-Number of person's in this family: 6 (not visible).
This census was burned.
****James E. Smith (1828-1913) and wife Nancy (1831-1910) are buried at Mountain Peak Cemetery, Texas. These memorials show most of this 1890 Census.

- James E. Smith, (HOH) age 63, white, Alabama,
Confederate
--Nancy H. Smith, wife, 58, white, TN,
Children: 8-5. (she had 8 kids-only 5 survive).
-- Joseph T. Smith, son, 27, single, Texas
---Louella J. Smith, daughter, 21, single, Texas
--David Smith, son, 18, Texas

(b) There are two 1890 Census dated 12 June 1890 for the township of Mound County, McDonough, Illinois. The parents are buried at Bushnell Cemetery, Bushnell, McDonough, Illinois. A copy of this census is added to their memorials.
Husband William H. Anderson (1841-1916)
Wife Hester (Wilson) Anderson (1850-1917)

George A. Singer (1837-1917) and his family. ID:165 151 817, Industry, McDonough, Illinois

(c) William Anderson, b. Indiana, age 50, married
Hester Anderson b. Illinois, age 40 married
Jasper H. Anderson, b. Illinois, age 17, son
Charles H. Anderson, b. Illinois, age 14, son
John M. Anderson, b. Illinois, age 10, son.

(d) The 12 June 1890 Census for Washington, District of Columbia.
John Hayward (1835-1909), Arlington National Cemetery, Wife Mary (Ferris) Hayward (1838-1915). Their daughters were Mary, Emma, Mabel.

Here are some of the surviving fragments of the 1890 U.S. Census that do exisit :
1. Alabama‐-------------Perry County
2. District of Columbia
3. Georgia--‐-----Muscogee and Columbus County
4. Illinois---------McDonough County
5. Minnesota‐----Wright County
6. North Carolina---Cleveland and Gaston County
7. New Jersey----Hudson County
8. New York-------Suffolk and Westchester County
9. Ohio-------------Clinton and Hamilton County
10. South Dakota----Union County
11. Texas------Ellis,Hood, Rusk and Trinity County

31. Use census records as a source or a starting point in your search because they often times conflict with death certificates, obituaries, and other census records. Do not use or trust the information that is transcribed on "Cover Pages", to be accurate. Look at the actual document for the correct information.

Family Trees on Ancestry.
Do not make the mistake of copying or transferring census record data into your tree simply because " all these other trees are identical so it must be right." If you want the correct data, do your own research.

32. Death Certificates.
Keeping track of family genealogy was not always discussed. When information is being provided for a death certificate, many times the answer is "I think" instead of " I know for a fact."

33. Many people died in late December which means the obituary may be posted in January of the next year. The opposite of this is when the obituary is posted in early January, means you should look for the obituary in December of the previous year. This is when the death date versus the burial date becomes important.

34. Newspaper Obituaries.
If you are having trouble finding the year your relative died, do what I do. I narrow down my search (year range) by using obituaries . Find the obituaries for the parents and siblings that have a death year. Now look for "Survived By," it may also say " Was preceded in death by " or "Leaves Behind." Next step in your newspaper search is to change year range. I keep narrowing the range until I find the missing year of death.

Tip: Two other types exist:
1. Death Notice
2. Funeral Notice

Tip: Obituaries do not always tell you what city, and county the person died in but you can find the answer. When the obituary says for example: "she died at 2115 Hawthorne Street.", this means she died locally. Google the address and it will tell you the city. Now you can find the county. When the person died else where, it usually list the city or the county and state. Example: She died in Richmond, Virginia, or she died in Shawnee County, Kansas.

Obituaries from the 1700s to the early 1900s.
My research has taught me not to rely solely on the information in just one obituary. Many times obituaries had different spelling variations, or the dates of birth or death were different. Some provide a more detailed history of the deceased. Other differences included where they were born or where they died. To be more accurate in your research, look at more than one obituary for that person.

Interesting Story about a Civil War Veteran.
Source : The Pratt Republican, page 7, Thursday, 28 February 1889, Pratt, Kansas. " A Soldier Twice Dead, One Grave at Gettysburgh, Another in Germantown."
Stephen Kelly, served in Company E, 91st Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. One day, he was walking in Gettysburgh National Cemetery and he came upon his own grave! Kelly was very meticulous about making sure his name and unit were always marked on his belongings and the same was true for newspaper articles. Kelly had lost his canteen on the battlefield and it was found next to this soldier, who was buried in this grave. It was assumed the canteen belonged to this soldier. Kelly did everything he could to correct this error, but he was unsuccessful. So, for the next 25 years, he visited the grave of this unknown soldier to pay his respect. After Kelly's, death this gravestone was changed to "Unknown." To view this grave:
Unknown, ID:16206033, Gettysburgh National Cemetery, Gettysburgh, Pennsylvania. Stephen Kelly died 29 January 1889, burial location unknown.

The example below shows 4 differences for the same person, BaKeman, BaTeman, 1869 and 1871.

Oldest and last surviving Revolutionary War Veteran.
(a) Famous Memorial: Daniel Frederick Bakeman, (1759-1869) ID: 4061, Sandusky Cemetery
Freedom, Cattaraugus, New York.

(b) I found an article which conflicts with the surname BaTeman and 1869 death year. " The Ogle County Press, page 3, Polo, Illinois, Saturday April 29, 1871" which says the oldest and last known surviving revolutionary war veteran is Daniel Frederick Bateman, age 109.

35. Revolutionary War Website.
https: // revwarapps.org.
It is a free alphabetical database of historical documents to help prove you are related to a veteran of the revolutionary war.
This site list veterans of the revolutionary war who filed for their transcripts and pensions. This site is only for the Southern Campaigns, which include: Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia.
I created a virtual cemetery called D.A.R. and S.A.R.

Newspaper Terminology.
(a) "Relic" refers to the "wife of."
Example: Martha, relic of Amos Jones, died last Monday . Another word used for wife was "Consort."

(b) "Inst" is short for Instant.
It refers to the current month. Example:
Martha Jones, from MO, died on the 2nd inst.

(c) "Ult" is short for Ultimo. It means last month.
Example: Died- In this city, on the 27th ult, Martha, relic of Amos Jones.

(d) "Esq" is short for Esquire. Used for a person who is a lawyer. Example: Mr Wilson, Esq.,

(e) "Intestate" means there was no legal will.

(f) " Issue" refers to a person's children or grandchildren, direct lineal descendant.

If there is more then one article or document, attach them in numerical order. My source is always put on page one. Always provide the source for the obituary because it is the correct thing to do and it provides crucial information for researchers.

How to add Articles and Documents in numerical order. For a memorial you manage:
(a) Click on Photos
(b) Click on Arrange Photos .

For a memorial managed by someone else, always add them in reverse order.
Example. If you have a 3 page article:
(1) add the 3rd page first.
It will now appear as the last page.
(2) Add page 2, second
(3) Add page 1 last. It will now appear as page 1.

36. Public Domain and Copyright.
UPDATE: Listed at the top of my bio page.
Do your own research on this subject. I've read some university and law-firm websites, and they say if its registered or legally published in the United States before 31 December 1923, the copyright has expired in 2019. With unpublished work, the copyright extends multiple decades after the author died. I am currently going through all my "added and managed records", to remove any articles dated after 1923 and also those that do not have a source attached.

37. Family Reunions.
A newspaper subscription is a great resource to find Family Reunions. I've seen lineage described back to the 1700s . Example is from " The Buffalo Sunday Morning News, page 44, Sunday, 5 July 1915, Buffalo, New York." The article is titled "Jewett Family Annual Reunion Held in Buffalo. Distinguished Men and Women Bearing Notable Names and Boasting Ancient Lineage from all parts of the country." It includes information from 1855, photos of people, homes, and the Coat of Arms. The Jewetts had a patriotic song composed by H. J. Prentiss for the reunion of 1855, Tune : America", lyrics included.

38. Publications on Genealogy.

(a) Maj John Bolling II, ( 1700-1757), ID: 434 32041, Cobbs Cemetery, Enon, Virginia. Bolling is one of the oldest Colonial families in Virginia. " The Bolling Memoirs", written by Robert Bolling, born in 1738, was originally written in French.

(b) Richard Gentry (1846-1916), ID: 719 366 71, Forest Hill Cemetery, Kansas City, Missouri. He is a descendant of a line of Richard Gentry's who have been in the U.S. since 1676. He wrote a book titled " The Gentry Family In America, 1676-1909." It includes two thousand indexed names.
Source: The Kansas City (MO) Times, page 2, Tuesday, 9 May 1916.

(c). Dr. Charles Henry Stanley Davis, (1840-1917), ID: 611 733 28, In Memoriam Cemetery, Wallingford, Connecticut. I added an article to his memorial, its titled " A Complete History of Meridan, Wallingford and Cheshire, CT. Source: The Meridan (CT) Daily Republican, page 2, Wednesday, 11 May 1870. It is 800 pages. Here are just a few of the surnames in his book: Atwater, Beach, Bristol, Brockett,Carrington, Harriman, Hough, Ives, and Tuttle.
He was a member of numerous societies to include New England Historical Society.

(d) Reverand Henry A. Hazen, (1832-1900), ID: 615 11 733, Christian Street Cemetery, Hartford, Vermont. He wrote a " History of Billerica (MA) with a Genealogical Register."

(e) Reverand Edward Griffin Porter, (1837-1900), ID: 155 17 1967, Cedar Grove Cemetery, Dorchester, Massachusettes. **The following article is added to the memorials of Hazen and Porter , "Boston Evening Transcript, page 6, Friday, 30 March 1883, Massachusettes." A chapter is contributed by Porter called " The Mother of Billericay (MA) . It includes 200 pages with records prior to 1800. All families bearing the names Farley, Farmer, Jefts, Kidder, Kittredge, Pollard, Shed, and Toothaker, whose lines in this country go back to 1700, find their American progenitor in Billerica. He lists over 60 surnames.

(f) Henry Franklin Andrews (1844-1919),ID: 78712122, Exira Cemetery, Audubon, Iowa. " Audubon (IA) Republican, page 4, Thursday, 25 July 1901. Article says " Honorable H.F. Andrews is regarded as a pioneer in Genealogy work in Iowa." See the article added to his memorial.
Audubon County Journal, Exira, Iowa, page 4, Thursday, 22 May 1919. Read the 4th paragraph. His published works include The Andrews Family, 1890, The Hamlin Family in 1894, 1900 and 1902 and the History of Audubon County, Iowa, 1918. See memorial for Giles Hamlin (1622-1689), ID: 21317504, Riverside Cemetery, Middletown, Connecticut.

39. Free sources to help your research:
(a) Nationwide grave locator.
(gravelocator . cem . va . gov)
This is only for military burials in national
cemeteries.

(b) Soldier and Sailor System ( nps . gov)
Military information for civil war soldiers.

(c) Politicalgraveyard . com
Burial locations for Politicians

(d) Missouri Death Certificates (w. sos . mo .gov)
Free Death Certificates (1910-1973):
Each year more certificates are added.
Pre 1910 information---No death certificates.
This site also has a military collection
dating back to The War of 1812. Go to:
Home Page-- Browse Collections- -Civil
War-- Collections & Resources--Military

(e) llinois Statewide Database. ( w. ilsos .gov)

(f) Ohio Statewide Death Index. Civilian and
military. //resources.ohiohistory.org
Information only, no free death certificates
(1904- 1970) as of February 2023.

(g) Arizona Department of Health
(w . azdhs . gov)
Look for: Arizona Genealogy Record Search:
"Free death certificates"

(h) Erie Railroad Internet Employee Archives
http : // freepages dot rootsweb dot com
Google " Erie Railroad Magazine Deaths."

My goal on Findagrave has always been to do Quality Work, Not Quantity Work. I leave it all to future posterity. Copyright information: You may use my photos, but only in a dignified, respectful manner. Please remember to always give credit to the people who actually took the photos.

On 30 March 2020, I fulfilled my 2,000th photo request. You can transfer unwanted grave records to Findagrave by using the number 8. If you want to manage a non-famous record that is maintained by Findagrave, click on the Suggest Edits, then it will ask " do you want to manage it?", click yes. People listed as Famous are maintained by findagrave. On 22 February 2023, I had findagrave remove my name from all of my 72 famous bios. I do not need that recognition.

My name is Thomas M. DeNardo, currently residing in Missouri, originally from California. My parents George and Lois were born in New Jersey. My fathers dad, Matteo immigrated from Italy at age 6 with his brother James and mother Magdalena (Di Tommaso) Di Nardo. Matteo married my first generation Sicilian grandmother Colagera " Lillian" Domino in 1922, who was born in New Jersey. Our surname was originally spelled Di Nardo. By the time they were married, Matteo changed his name to Matthew Denardo. I chose to use DeNardo on this site. My mother's paternal grandparents were Joseph and Mary Ann (Eacrett) Cassidy, their parents immgrated from Ireland. Joseph and Mary Cassidys son was Harold Joseph Cassidy, my mothers father. Harold's parents died when he was about age three or four. My mother's maternal grandparents were Jacob and Emma (Sicknick) Bagger, who immigrated from Haderslav, Denmark.

I was honorably discharged from the U.S. Air Force after serving 10 years on active duty. After my military service, I completed my Bachelors Degree at the former Central Missouri State University in Warrensburg, Missouri in 2000. I retired from my government job in Missouri after 20 years of faithful service. My ashes will be buried in California.

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