He was the sixth Prince of Thurn and Taxis, head of the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post, and Head of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis from 15 July 1827 until his death on 10 November 1871.
Maximilian Karl was the fourth child of Karl Alexander, 5th Prince of Thurn and Taxis and his wife Duchess Therese of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, sister of Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He was born in the so-called Inner Palace of St. Emmeram's Abbey. At the age of nine, Maximilian Karl became Under Lieutenant in Bayer's Fourth Bayerrischen Cheveaulegers-Regiment König. After four years of education at Bildungsinstitut Hofwyl, a Swiss educational institution, he joined the Bavarian army on 25 August 1822. After the death of his father in 1827, Maximilian Karl asked for his dismissal from the army. Afterwards, he continued with his new role as head of the House of Thurn and Taxis, with the advisement and support of his mother.
He was married twice and had 16 children.
Karl Alexander von Thurn und Taxis
Wilhelmine Caroline Christine Henriette von Dörnberg
1803–1835 (m. 1828)
Mathilde Sophie zu Oettingen-Oettingen
1816–1886 (m. 1839)
Maximilian Anton von Thurn und Taxis
Theodor von Thurn und Taxis
Otto von Thurn und Taxis
Paul Von Fels
Gustav von Thurn und Taxis
Adolph von Thurn und Taxis
Franz von Thurn und Taxis
Nikolaus von Thurn und Taxis
Alfred von Thurn und Taxis