German Royalty, first queen of Bavaria. She and her twin sister were the first children of Karl Ludwig of Baden and Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt. Her family fled from the french army to Ansbach where she met the widowed duke Maximilian Joseph of Pfalz-Zweibrücken. On March 9th 1797 she married the twenty years older duke in Karlsruhe. He was so in love that he overlooked her protestant faith. She had a very loving relationship with her husband and when they were separated for a few days they wrote several letters per day. She is described as a very affectionate mother to her eight children. One son was stillborn and the second died only three years old. In 1801, she gave birth to the twins Elisabeth Ludovica and Amalie Auguste. Four years later she again bore twins, Sophie Friederike and Maria Leopoldina. In 1808, she gave birth to Ludovica, mother of Empress 'Sissi' and in 1810 her last child Maximiliane Josepha was born. She had a close friendship to her stepson Karl Theodor who gave her good financial advises. Maximilian succeeded the Elector Karl Theodor of Bavaria in 1799. She was very popular and due to her being protestant a new religious tolerance established itself in Bavaria. In 1806 Bavaria became a Kingdom and Caroline its first queen. The first protestant church in Bavaria was consecrated in 1822 and was named after her "Carolinenkirche". After her husbands death she lived in her residence in Munich or at the Castle Tegernsee. After the murder of Kaspar Hauser in 1833 she supported the rumors that the boy had been her brothers son. She died peacefully at the Castle Tegernsee surrounded by her family that had gathered there to celebrate the birthdays of Elisabeth and Amalie.
Maximilian I Joseph