Austrian physician and "plague doctor." Jettmar is known for his work with plague victims in Russia during World War I, where he was a prisoner of war and practiced medicine in Siberia, and later in Mongolia. In the 1920s he returned to Vienna and subsequently went to Manchuria in China to practice medicine in rural small villages and to continue to fight against plague. He also worked in Nanking and Shanghai. Later he would work with Chairman Mao to help with disease control. In 1947 he returned to his home in Austria, where he helped to promote cultural exchange with China and where he remained until his death. He also authored many papers and books, which he bequeathed to the Natural History Museum of Vienna.