King of Serbia. After the murder of prince Mihailo, he became Prince on 02.07.1868. During his reign he relied mainly on the army, and therefore he was constantly working on improving its strength. In foreign politics Milan Obrenovic at first relied on Russia. Under public pressure he declared war on Turkey in 1876, which, in 1878. ended unsuccessfully since it was not prepared properly in diplomatic sense. During the same year, under influence of Russia, he declared war on Turkey once again, from which Serbia came reinforced , gaining following districts: Pirot, Nis, Toplica and Vranje, and in 1878. Serbia was formally recognized as an independent state on Congress in Berlin. Because of the Russian support to Bulgaria, which culminated in Sanstefan contract, Milan Obrenovic changed his orientation to Austro-Hungary. In June 1881. he signed secret contract with Austro-Hungary in which Serbia was obligated not to act against interests of Austro-Hungary in Bosnia and Herzegovina and not to sign political contracts with other countries. In return Austro-Hungary guarantied him remaining on the throne and diplomatic assistance to help Serbia gain territories further toward south, which was understood as betrayal of national interests by the public. He declared himself King in 1882. When Bulgaria joined with Eastern Rubella in 1885, Milan Obrenovic declared war to it in order to occupy part of Bulgarian territory. Because of his failures in this war, which he led unsuccessfully, public was even more disappointed by his politics. In 1888. he accepted constitution which would eventually transform Serbia into a constitutional and parliamentary Monarchy, but after conflicting with constitutional clauses he abdicated in the next year in favor of his underage son Aleksander. He was appointed for Commandant of Active Army, but resigned in 1890.
Bio by: Jelena