Swedish Monarch. Born at Nyköping Castle, the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg (Pfalz), and Princess Catherine of Sweden. He served in the army fighting in Germany under Count Leonard Thurstenson during the Thirty Years' War. He returned to Sweden in 1645, and made a failed attempt to secure an engagement to his cousin, Queen Chirstina. The queen then appointed him commander of the Swedish forces in Germany in 1648. Within a year, she named him her successor. Christina abdicated in his favor on June 5, 1654. He contracted a marriage of alliance with Hedwig Eleanor of Holstein-Gottorp, with whom he had one son. In July 1655, he left Sweden during the five year long Second Northern War. The conflict eventually drew in Russia and the Holy Roman Empire, Brandenburg, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Carl Gustav attacked Denmark in 1657 and conquered Jutland. The Treaty of Roskilde in 1658 saw Denmark cede all its holdings in southern Sweden, Trondheim in Norway, and the island of Bornholm. His military campaigns faltered without reliable allies, and in 1659 the Swedish Parliament was called upon to deal with the situation. The king died suddenly in Gothenburg while the Riksdag was still in session. He was succeeded by his four-year-old son Carl XI.
Bio by: Iola
Catherine of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken
Hedwig Eleanor of Schleswig-Holst