Excommunicated Roman Catholic Bishop who became one of the founders of the Independent Catholic Movement.
Bishop Carlos Duarte Costa was consecrated as the Roman Catholic Diocesan Bishop of Botucatu, Brazil, on December 8, 1924, until certain views he expressed about treatment of the Brazil's poor, by both the civil government and the Roman Catholic Church in Brazil, caused his removal from the Diocese of Botucatu. Bishop Duarte Costa was subsequently named Titular Bishop of Maura by the late Pope Pius XII (Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli, formerly Vatican Secretary of State until 1939, under Pope Pius XI). Bishop Duarte Costa had been a strong advocate in the 1930's for reform of the Roman Church; he challenged many of the key issues that the Second Vatican Council would later thirty-five years take action upon.
On June 06, 1944, Dom Carlos Duarte Costa, by the order of the government, facilitated by the Apostolic Nuncio joining the Brazilian fascists, was imprisoned and led to Belo Horizonte - MG, where he was accused of being a communist sympathizer, and remained imprisoned until 06 September 1944, when the order against the Brazilian Association of the Press was lifted, the government of Mexico and the United Nations, intervened together to the Brazilian Government through its intermediaries of their embassies in favor of Dom Carlos Duarte Costa.
Several warnings had been given to Dom Carlos Duarte Costa, from the Roman Apostolic administration. But the more he was warned, more he defended the Christian faith, the laborers, the existing native land against the fascists and Nazis in the Church and its hierarchy. Without any hope of the submission of Dom Carlos Duarte Costa, the Vatican, enraged, laid against Dom Carlos Duarte Costa, Bishop of Maura, the penalty of excommunication on July 02, 1945.
When he learned of the excommunication, Dom Carlos Duarte Costa, responded, establishing the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic National Church (ICAB) on July 6, 1945. The extract of the statutes of the new Church was published in Federal official gazette, page 12, 637, July 25, 1945. The Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church was registered in book No 2 of the Civil Societies, under Number 107.966 of the Book A, Number 04.
On August 18, 1945, Dom Carlos Duarte Costa published in the press of the world, his wonderful "Manifesto to the Nation", where he criticizes the Roman Catholic Church and he spoke of his established Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church.
Although Dom Carlos Duarte Costa, already had left the Roman Catholic Church, and was no longer a member, acting as a bishop of that church in any way, on July 24, 1946, Dom Carlos Duarte Costa, was declared, "excommunicado vitando", that is, excommunicated to the severest degree that exists, to prevent Roman Catholics from having anything to do with him whatsoever. This excommunication for his "schismatic audacity" was to make him "return to the unity of the true Church."
Dom Carlos Duarte Costa guided, directed and governed the Brazilian Church with a firm hand for 16 years, until he fell asleep in Christ, in Rio De Janeiro March 26, 1961, on Palm Sunday. At that time, Dom Carlos Duarte Costa, at 73 years age, had 50 Priests and 37 Bishops. The death of Dom Carlos Duarte Costa moved all of the Brazilian people, mainly in the City of Rio De Janeiro. Igreja-Mae and Couto Street of fiduciary offices had been overcrowded with people. The people wanted to see their Shepherd. It was a burial worthy of a Bishop who was very much loved by the people. The coffin with the mortal remains of Dom Carlos Duarte Costa proceeded down Igreja-Mae, on Couto No 54 Street, where Dom Carlos Duarte Costa was entombed with all the honors of a Pontiff, in the presence of the Bishops of ICAB.