Ghanian Politician. Nkrumah was the founder of Pro-Africanism and later served as Prime Minister of Ghana from 1957 to 1964, and as President of Ghana from 1964 to 1966. A native of Nkroful, Ghana, he attended the Achiomota School in Accra, Ghana, the Roman Catholic Seminary in Amisano, Ghana, and Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, where he received a BA in 1939. He later helped to establish the Sixth Pan-African Congress in Manchester, England, in 1945, and then he began to work for the decolonisation of Africa and became Vice-President of West African Students Union. In 1947 he joined the United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC), and then formed his own party the same year, the Convention Peoples Party (CPP), with the motto 'Self-government now'. In 1949 Nkrumah left the UGCC and in December of 1949 he declared 'Positive Action' - mass action in the form of boycotts, strikes, and civil disobedience, and was arrested by the British in January 1950. He was facing international protests and internal resistance but the British decided to leave Ghana. In 1951 Nkrumah won a seat in the Legislative Assembly while still in prison, the CPP won 34 out of 38 seats. He was released later from prison and then asked hto lead the new government in cooperation with the British to lead to indepenedence. In 1960 Ghana was declared a republic, and in 1963 Ghana became a charter member of the Organization of African Unity. After declaring himself President for life in 1964 he was plagued by economic downturn, political conflict, an assassination attempt, and general unrest while he established Ghana as a one-party state. In February 1966 while he was visiting Beijing, China, and Hanoi, Vietnam, his government was overthrown in a military coup d'état. Nkrumah never returned to Ghana and he exiled in Guinea until he died of natural causes in Bucharest, Romania, on April 27, 1972, at the age of 62. Among Nkrumah's books are, "Why Africa Must Unite" (1963), "African Personality" (1963), "Handbook For Revolutionary Warfare" (1968) and "Class Struggle in Africa" (1970).
Bio by: Kris 'Peterborough K' Peterson