Continental Congressman, US Senator. He was elected as served as a Delegate from New Jersey to the Continental Congress on three separate occasions (1777 to 1778, 1781 to 1783, 1787 to 1788). When the United States Constitution was ratified in 1789, he was elected along with William Paterson as New Jersey's first two Senators to the United States Senate. He served in that office from 1789 to 1791. He was the older brother of New Jersey Congressman Ebenezer Elmer, and the the uncle of New Jersey Congressman Lucius Quintius Cincinnatus Elmer.