French Monarch. Second of four living children, and second son of Philip III, King of France and Isabella of Aragon. Called Philip the Fair because of his good looks. At the age of two, Philip IV's brother, Louis of France, became the heir apparent to the throne of France when their grandfather, Louis IX, died in 1270. His mother died in 1271, Philip III remarried and had a son, Louis, with his new wife, Mary of Brabant. Louis of France died the same month, poisoned. Although a royal councilor, Pierre de la Broce was hung for the crime, Mary was always a suspect. Philip IV became heir apparent, and Mary's son would be the Count of Evreux. His father arranged his marriage August 16, 1284 to Joan of Navarre; Philip then became Philip I, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne. A year later, Philip III died of dysentery during a battle against Spain, and Philip IV became King of France, crowned January 6, 1286 at Reims. Battles against Edward I, then Duke of Aquitane, in attempts to get England to relinquish their lands in France, as well as his father's activities in the Crusades were costly. Philips's directives (debasing the French coin, Lombard bankers and Jews were expelled from France, their properties expropriated, taxed French clergy) led to riots in Paris where Philip had to take refuge in the Knights Templar temple in Paris. Philip was humiliated by a defeat and inconclusive battles trying to suppress insurgents in Flanders, and married two sons off to their daughters. Philip was in considerable debt to the Knights Templar, and as the Crusades became less popular, and active, Philip had the order disbanded. Hundreds of knights were arrested in secret on Friday, Oct 13, 1307. The two last Masters of the Templar, Jacques de Molayand Geoffroi de Charney, were burned at the stake on March 18, 1314 on the Isle des Juifs in the river Seine, within sight of the palace gardens. Philip was cursed by de Molay as he burned, and misfortune would follow the Capet family until it's complete demise fourteen years later. Thee of his daughter in laws were accused of adultery or knowledge of it, papal power was at a severe decline, and Philip himself, suffered a cerebral event while hunting in the Forest of Halatte, and died a few weeks later in the location of his birth: Fontainebleau. His son, Louis X, would become the next King of France, followed by his two brothers in turn.
Bio by: Anne Shurtleff Stevens
Jeanne I de Navarre