Mathematician. Known for his applications of differential equations to physics, especially thermodynamics, Bertrand studied at École Polytechnique and the École Nationale Supérieure des Mines in Paris. He became a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1856 and served as the societies secretary from 1874 until his death in 1900. His published works included various topics from differential geometry, probability theory to the mathematical theory of electricity. He also produced textbooks on math, algebra and calculus for use in secondary schools. His 1888 book "Calculus of Probabilities" contains a paradox on continuous probabilities now known as "Bertrand's Paradox".
Bio by: Samuel Taylor Geer
Marcel Alexandre Bertrand