Philosopher, Economic Theorist. Remembered as the Founder of modern socialism and communism. Born in Trier, Germany, the son of a distinguished lawyer, and from a long line of rabbis, he was baptized a Protestant, so that he would not have the stigma of being born Jewish. In 1835, he enrolled in the study of Law at the University of Bonn, Germany, where he studied Romantic literature and politics. There he became engaged and later married Jenny von Westphalen, daughter of Baron von Westphalen and prominent member of Trier society. The following year, he transferred to the better University of Berlin, for the next four years, where he abandoned his romanticism for the Hegelian movement that dominated young, liberal, college students at the time. Hegelianism was born of an opposition to Prussian autocracy, but it included a radical look at Christianity and religion in general. In October 1842, Marx took a journalist job with the "Rheinische Zeitung" a radically liberal newspaper, in which he wrote on economic theory. When the government closed the newspaper, Marx immigrated to Paris, France. There he became a communist, blending German Hegelianism with French socialism, arguing that communism was a better economic system, as it would allow people to freely develop their nature with cooperative production. In Paris, he developed his lifelong partnership with fellow communist, Friedrich Engels. In 1844, he was expelled from France, and he lived for the next three years in Belgium, where he developed his prediction of the collapse of industrial capitalism and its replacement by communism. Moving to London, he wrote "The Communist Manifesto" (1848) which expressed his position on the future of communism and capitalism. Shortly after "The Communist Manifesto" was published, a series of revolutions broke out all over Europe, and Marx quickly moved to Cologne, Germany, where he published a radical newspaper. When the authorities suppressed the newspaper in 1849, Marx quickly returned to London, England, where he would remain for the rest of his life. For the remainder of his life, he would write about his political economy theories, including his greatest work, "Das Capital", which would be published in three volumes. He spent a great amount of his time working for the First Communist International, and was elected to its General Council in 1864. As his health slowly declined, he would die of natural causes in London, in March 1883.
Bio by: Kit and Morgan Benson
Workers Of All Lands