Carlota Joaquina Teresa de Borbón y Borbón-Parma was a Spanish princess and later queen of Portugal.
She was born in Aranjuez. She was the eldest surviving child born to her parents. She was born during the reign of her paternal grand father, Charles III of Spain (1716–1788). Her father was the second son of Charles III and his Saxon wife Maria Amalia; her mother, Maria Luisa of Parma was a granddaughter of Louis XV of France through her mother Princess Louise Élisabeth of France, Louis XV's favourite daughter. Louise Élisabeth's husband Philip, Duke of Parma, was a younger brother of Charles III. Charlotte's future husband was a grandson of Mariana Victoria of Spain, sister of Charles III and the Duke of Parma. In 1807, the Portuguese royal family left Portugal for Brazil because of the Napoleonic invasion. When the Portuguese Royal Family returned to Portugal in 1821 after an absence of 14 years, Charlotte met a country that had changed much since their departure. In 1807, Portugal had lived stably under absolutism. Napoleonic troops and the developments in her native Spain had brought revolutionary ideas. In 1820, a liberal revolution commenced in Oporto. A constitutional Cortes Gerais had been promulgated, and in 1821 it gave Portugal its first constitution. The queen had arch-conservative positions and wanted a reactionary development in Portugal. Her husband did not want to renege his vows to uphold the constitution. Charlotte made an alliance with her youngest son Miguel, who shared his mother's conservative views. In 1824, using Miguel's position as army commander, they took power and held the king a virtual prisoner in the palace, where the queen tried to make him to abdicate in favor of Miguel. However, the king received British help and regained power, finally compelling his son to leave the country. The queen had also to go briefly into exile.
King John VI lived in the Palace of Bemposta and Queen Charlotte in Queluz. Though she lived there quietly, she became decidedly eccentric in dress and behaviour. However, their eldest son, Petro, left behind as regent in Brazil, was proclaimed and crowned on 1 December 1822 as its independent Emperor. John VI refused to accept this until, in August 1825, he was persuaded by the British to do so. In March 1826, prematurely aged, he died. Claiming ill-health, Charlotte refused to attend his deathbed and started the rumour that her husband had been poisoned by the Freemasons.
The Emperor of Brazil now became King of Portugal as well; but knowing this to be impossible, Peter abdicated in Portugal and made his eldest daughter Queen as well as betrothing her to Miguel, his younger brother. In the meantime Infanta Isabel Maria, Charlotte's daughter, was to be the regent in Portugal. About two years later the little queen set out, only to find upon arrival at Gibraltar that her uncle and fiancé had not only removed the regent but declared himself King of Portugal. Shortly before King John's death, he nominated their daughter Infanta Isabel Maria as regent, a position usually occupied by the queen dowager.
Maria Teresa of Braganza
Francisco António of Braganza
Maria Isabel of Portugal
Pedro Of Brazil
Maria Francisca de Assis of Braganza
Isabel Maria of Braganza
Miguel of Portugal
Maria Assunção of Braganza
Ana de Jesus Maria of Braganza