English Architect. He is most noted for the design of many English country houses, war memorials (specifically the Cenotaph in London), and his instrumental role in the designing and building of New Delhi, which would later serve as the seat of the Government of India. He grew up in Thursley, Surrey and from 1885-1887 studied architecture at South Kensington School of Art, London. After college he joined the Ernest George and Harold Peto architectural practice where he first met Sir Herbert Baker. His early work was the most innovative phase of his career and consisted mainly of private houses in an Arts and Crafts style, Important works of this period include Munstead Wood, Tigbourne Court, Orchards and Goddards in Surrey, Deanery Garden and Folly Farm in Berkshire, Overstrand Hall in Norfolk and Le Bois des Moutiers in France. After c1900 this style gave way to a more conventional Classicism, a change of direction which had a profound influence on wider British architectural practice. His commissions were of a varied nature from private houses to two churches for the new Hampstead Garden Suburb in London to Julius Drewe's Castle Drogo near Drewsteignton in Devon and on to his contributions to India's new imperial capital, New Delhi, (where he worked as chief architect with Herbert Baker and others). His work in New Delhi spanned a period of more than 20 years (1912-1930) and in recognition of his contribution New Delhi is also known as "Lutyens' Delhi". In collaboration with Sir Herbert Baker, he was also the main architect of several monuments in New Delhi such as the India Gate; he also designed Viceroy's House, which is now known as the Rashtrapati Bhavan. Before the end of the First World War he was appointed one of three principal architects for the Imperial War Graves Commission (now Commonwealth War Graves Commission) and was involved with the creation of many monuments to commemorate the dead. Larger cemeteries have a Stone of Remembrance, designed by him. The best known of these monuments are the Cenotaph in Whitehall, Westminster, and the Memorial to the Missing of the Somme, Thiepval. Examples of other war memorials designed by him include the War Memorial Gardens in Dublin, the Tower Hill memorial, and the Arch of Remembrance memorial in Leicester. He was knighted in 1918 and elected a Royal Academician in March 1920. In 1924, he was appointed a member of the newly created Royal Fine Art Commission, a position he held until his death. While work continued in New Delhi he continued to receive other commissions including several commercial buildings in London and the British Embassy in Washington, DC. In 1924 he completed the supervision of the construction of what is perhaps his most popular design: Queen Mary's Dolls' House. This four-storey Palladian villa was built in 1/12 scale and is now a permanent exhibit in the public area of Windsor Castle. He received the American Institute of Architects Gold Medal in 1925. In November 2015 the British government announced that all 44 of his First World War memorials in Britain had now been listed on the advice of Historic England, and were therefore all protected by law. This involved the one remaining memorial—the Gerrards Cross Memorial Building in Buckinghamshire—being added to the list, plus a further fourteen having their statuses upgraded.
Bio by: Peter Cox