The traditional site of Jesus' crucifixion and entombment, the site has been widely accepted by the faithful as the place where Jesus died, was entombed, and then rose from the dead. The church surrounding the tomb was first constructed by Constantine the Great about the year 336, he isolated the Tomb by cutting away the surrounding rock to make it free-standing. It was sacked by the Persians in 614 but restorations were carried out by the Patriarch Modestus in 638. In 1009, the fanatic caliph al-Hakim Bi-Amr Allah ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre. Under Constantine IX Monomachos, efforts were made to restore the site, and the work was completed in 1048. The rotunda was rebuilt, using the surviving 4th century walls. When the European crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099 they immediately set about to restore the Holy Sepulchre. Within the church, the Rock of Calvary, where the Crucifixion is believed to have occurred, is encased in glass at the Altar of the Crucifixion. The shrine that encloses the tomb, known as the Edicule, underwent restoration in 2016, and the tomb itself was opened for the first time in centuries.