Civil War Union Brigadier General. Graduated from West Point Class of 1839. At the First Manassas he was an artillery commander of a battery on Henry House Hill where he was wounded four times and taken prisoner by the Confederates. He was not exchanged until January 1862. Promoted to Brigadier General of Volunteers in April to rank from the date of the battle and was assigned command of a division in McDowell's Corps which he commanded at Cedar Mountain and at Second Manassas. At Sharpsburg he had two horses killed from under him and was severely hurt when the second horse fell on him. When he recovered he was appointed to the Fitz John Porter court-martial. This helped to ruin his reputation, as it did with most people on the board. He returned to active duty in March 1864 when he was given command of a division under John Sedgwick during Grant's Overland Campaign against Richmond, serving at the Wilderness and Spotsylvania. In July his division was sent to Washington to protect the capitol from the forces of Jubal Early during that Raid on Washington. His forces got the brunt of the action at the Battle of Monocacy south of Frederick, Md. From there he served in the 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign. At the Battle of Cedar Creek he was wounded once again by a bullet through the chest, which disabled him for the rest of his life. Nevertheless, he returned to command two days before Lee surrendered at Appomattox. He was brevetted Major General of Volunteers on Aug. 1, l864 and in the Regular Army on March 13, 1865. He retired from active duty as a Major General for disability from wounds received in battle; however, he continued to do court-marshal duties until 1869.
Bio by: EFB III