Scientist. She was an eminent and influential psychoanalyst who believed in the human capacity for constructive growth and development and who refuted Freud's more pessimistic view of human nature. Born and educated in Germany, she came to the United States in 1932 and became affiliated with the Psychoanalytic Institute, Chicago, and the New York Psychoanalytic Institute. She was one of the founders of the Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis and the American Institute for Psychoanalysis. Her books include "Our Inner Conflicts", "The Neurotic Personality of Our Time", "Neurosis and Human Growth", and "New Ways in Psychoanalysis".