Russian General. Commander of the Russian Caucasus Army and one of the most successful generals of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was later a leader of the counterrevolution in North Western Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. Educated at Alexandrovsky Military School in 1887. Graduated from the Academy of the General Staff. Served in the Army in Turkestan in 1892. Took part in the Russo-Japanese War. Chief-of-Staff of the Caucasian Military district in 1912. commander-in-chief of the Caucasian Army, 1915. After the February revolution 1917, Commander-in-chief of the Caucasian front. Dismissed by the Provisional Governmentin April 1917. Moved to Finland in autumn 1918, then to Estonia. Appointed commander of local White detachments by Admiral Kolchak. In October 1919 made a surprising bid to capture Petrograd, drawing upon himself very large reserves of the Red Army. Forced to retreat with his North Western Army to Estonia, where he was interned. Emigrated to France wher he lived until his death.
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