Dutch philosopher. Born Bento de Espinoza, descendant of Portuguese sephards. Educated in an Amsterdam Jewish school. Following contacts with Mennonites and influenced by the teachings of Descartes and scholastics, he became more and more critical of Jewish heritage, to the point of being excluded from his parish. Later studies in Leyden.
Since 1661 author of books about the critical interpretation of the bible and developer of a system of ethics : Tractatus de intellectus emendatione; Renati Descartes principiorum philosophiae mori geometrico demonstrata; Tractatus theologico-politicus; Ethica, ordine geometrico demonstrata; Tractatus politicus.
The parents of Baruch Spinoza are buried on the Jewish cemtery Beth Haim at Oudekerk aan the Amstel, cf http://findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=128187525 - Michael De Espinoza and http://findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=128187693 - Hanna De Espinoza
zekher tzadik livrakha
BENEDICTI DE SPINOZA
IN ECCLESIA NOVA OLIM SEPULTI