Journalist, Printer, Abolitionist and Political Leader. His newspaper office was a stop on the Underground Railroad. Poland was a Free Soil Democrat and was active in anti-slavery third parties until becoming a Republican when that party was founded in the 1850s. Washington County Probate Judge, 1852-1853. Vermont Senate, 1858-1860. Civil War Payroll Allotment Commissioner, 1861-1865. In 1863 he was Vermont's agent for the purchase of land in Montpelier for Sloan US Army Hospital. Vermont House, 1870-1871.