Historian. He is remembered for his twelve-volume analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations, "A Study of History, 1934-1961." He was the nephew of economist Arnold Toynbee. Born in London, he was educated at Oxford. He worked for the Foreign Office during both World War I and World War II, and was a delegate to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. He was Director of Studies at the Royal Institute of International Affairs and Research Professor of International History at the University of London. He was interested in the seeming repetition of patterns in history, which he chose to explain not by the successes and failures of empires, nation-states or ethnicity but by what he labeled as civilizations. He identified 26 civilizations according to cultural and religious criteria. His books achieved wide prominence more among the reading public than with fellow historians, who criticised him for contorting information to fit his alleged patterns of history. His other works include "Civilization on Trial" (1948), "East to West" (1958), and "Hellenism" (1959). Most versions of the Civilization computer game refer to his work.
Bio by: julia&keld