30th President of Peru. He received recognition serving as the elected Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru from August 2, 1868 to July 26, 1872, although Tomas Gutierrez forced him out of office by a coup d'état on the 22nd of July for the last four days of his life. This was a very unstable time in Peruvian history when several political fractions were attempting to be called the ruler of Peru and doing this by force. In 1865 he sided with Mariano Igncio Prado to seize the presidency, serving his in administration. Two years later, he overthrew Pardo's government. He was a military man with his career beginning with military school from 1830 to 1833 and obtaining the rank of second lieutenant. He was part of the battalion "Piquiza" and collaborated with the government of General Orbegoso on the Callao and in the Battle of Huaylacucho in 1834, and by 1835 held the rank of captain. During the short years of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, he fought against Santa Cruz fighting in the battles of Uchumayo and Socabaya. He was exiled to Bolivia for a time and held prisoner. He managed to escape and once again resumed fighting against Santa Cruz. He was promoted to sergeant major in 1839. He collaborated with the transitory government of General Torrico and participated in the Battle of Agua Santa in 1842, then retired from the army. Rallying with an army, he served as the Director of Manuel I. De Vivanco and participated in the battle of Carmen Alto in 1844 where his men were defeated by Ramon Castilla. Once again, he retired, but Castilla requested him to serve in his army as a lieutenant colonel in 1848 and advance to the rank of colonel by 1851. He was discharge from Castilla's army in 1855 since his sided with another political fraction. With the "law of reparation," he was back in the army by April of 1861. On May 2, 1866, he participated in the battle of Callao to stop the Spanish threat of invasion on the coastline of the Pacific. After that, he went on to become president.
Bio by: Linda Davis