Afghan Statesman. He served as both the Chairman of the Presidium of the Revolutionary Council (April 30, 1978 - September 14, 1979) and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers (May 1, 1978 to March 27, 1979). He attended night school while working as a clerk in Bombay, India, where he learned English. In the late 1940s, he worked in the press department of the Afghan government and in 1953, was appointed attaché at the Afghan embassy in Washington, D.C.. He later returned to Kabul to open up a business that translated materials for foreign organizations. In 1963, he helped form the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, a Marxist party with close ties to the Soviet Union. Four years later, the party split into two factions: "Parcham" led by Babrak Karmal and "Khalq", which he led. The "Parcham" supported the 1973 coup that brought Mohammad Daud Khan to power, but four years later, reunited with the "Khalq." In 1978, he helped to oust Daud Khan and became both president and prime minister. Once in power, he got into a power struggle with Hafizullah Amin, who he was forced to name as prime minister in March of 1979. Six months later, Amin seized power and during the coup, he was killed.
Bio by: Mr. Badger Hawkeye