Civil War Union Brigadier General. Graduated from the USMA in 1836, placing 24th out of 49 (his classmates included future Union Generals Montgomery Meigs, Daniel Woodbury and Henry H. Lockwood, as well as future Confederate Generals Joseph R. Anderson and Lloyd Tilghman). Served in the 1836-1837 Seminole Wars, and in the Mexican War, where he received, and turned down, the brevet of Captain. Served against the Indians on the Frontier until his resignation in 1859 to take up the duel causes of ending slavery and ending the Masonic Order. When the Civil War began, he was commissioned Colonel and commander of the 1st Vermont Volunteer Infantry. On August 9, 1861 he was promoted to Brigadier General, US Volunteers and commanded forces that participated in the capture of Newport News, Virginia. In early 1862, while garrison commander, he undertook the first recruitment of African-American troops by Union forces. This move was quickly squelched by the US Government, and caused him to be branded an outlaw and insurrection leader by the Confederate Government. He resigned his commission in August 21, 1862 in disgusted protest. He continued his causes until his death, and ran for President in 1880 in the Anti-Mason ticket.
Bio by: RPD2