French Monarch. Born the son of Marie von der Mark-Kleve and Charles, duc d’Orléans in Blois, France. He succeeded his father in 1465. His cousin 13-year-old cousin, Charles VIII, took the French throne in in 1483, under the regency of his sister and brother-in-law. The duc d’Orléans and a number of other discontented nobles challenged the power of the regents, and in an alliance with the Duke of Brittany in 1485 and 1488 rebelled. Captured in July 1488, he was never formally charged with treason, and by 1491 he was reconciled with the king. In 1498, Charles VIII died following a head injury, and his cousin ascended as Louis XII. He issued the Ordinance of Blois in 1499 and the Ordinance of Lyons in 1510 which were intended to define the powers of regional officials, curb corruption, and to extend the accountability of royal judges. Within France, the king became quite popular, granted the bye name Father of the People in 1506. His foreign affairs, however, did not prosper. Pursuing claims to the kingdom of Naples, he concluded the Treaty of Granada in 1500 with Ferdinand II of Aragon for a partition of the kingdom, but a year later the two kings were at war over the same question. By March 1504, the French had lost all of Naples. He participated in the League of Cambrai against the Venetians in 1509 which led to war with the Papal state and his excommunication. The French were forced to relinquish Milan in 1512, the following year the Swiss invaded Burgundy and besieged the city of Dijon, while England's Henry VIII invaded Picardy taking the French the towns of Thirouanne and Tournai, and offering Louis a humiliating defeat during a skirmish known as the Battle of the Spurs. By 1514, he had lost his Italian interests, but made peace with the succeeding Pope, and removed invaders from France through bribes and marriage, taking Mary Rose Tudor as his third wife. Three months later, allegedly suffering from severe gout, he died at age 52.
Bio by: Iola