French and Italian Monarch. He was the Count of Anjou and Maine, and reigned as King of Naples and Sicily, King of Jerusalem and Albania. Born the youngest son of King Louis VIII and Blanche de Castile, in 1246 he married the twelve years old Beatrice, heiress of Provence and became Count of Provence. After negotiations with two popes that altogether lasted more than ten years, he was crowned King of Naples and Sicily in January 1266. On February 26, 1266 he defeated King Manfred of Sicily, a son of Emperor Friedrich II, at the Battle of Benevento. In August 1268 he defeated Conradin of Swabia at Tagliacozzo and had him executed a month later. He persuaded his brother to a new crusade against Tunis in 1270. Arriving in Tunis a few hours after Louis' death, he took command of the forces there, stayed there while the crown prince returned to Europe, and negotiated a peace treaty with the Caliph of Tunis. With the support of the pope he was able to buy the claims of Maria of Antioch-Lusignan on the Kingdom of Jerusalem and was crowned King in 1277 but never really reigned the kingdom. In 1282 he lost Sicily to Peter III of Aragon, who had invaded Sicily after a revolt of the Sicilians and a massacre on the French there, that became known as the "Sicilian Vespers". He tried several times to recapture Sicily but was not successful. Following traditions his body was divided after his death. His heart was brought to France and his intestines to Foggia where they were buried.
Bio by: Lutetia