Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp was the daughter of Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, and Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach. She was a sister of Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden (1710-1771).
Johanna Elizabeth was married on November 8, 1727 in Vechelde, to Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst. She served as regent of Anhalt-Zerbst from 1747 to 1752 for her minor son, Frederick Augustus. She was the mother of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.
She was originally interred in the Schlosskirche, Zerbst. She was disinterred in 1946 and reinterred in this location.