Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, was the son of Johann Ludwig I, Prince of Anhalt-Dornburg, and his wife, Christine Eleonore of Zeutsch. He was married on November 8, 1727 in Vechelde, to Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp, daughter of Prince Christian August of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, and sister of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden.
He was the father of Catherine II, the Great, Empress of Russia.
He was originally interred in the Schlosskirche, Zerbst. He was disinterred in 1946 and reinterred in this location.