James II

James II

St James, City of Westminster, Greater London, England
Death 6 Sep 1701 (aged 67)
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Departement des Yvelines, Île-de-France, France
Burial Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Departement des Yvelines, Île-de-France, France
Memorial ID 1976 · View Source
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British Monarch. Born the second surviving son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria at St. James's Palace. He was created Duke of York in 1644. During the English Civil War he stayed in Oxford, a Royalist stronghold. When the city surrendered in 1646, the Duke was confined in St James's Palace by parliamentary command. In 1648, he escaped and went to the Netherlands in disguise. In 1660, his elder brother, Charles II was restored to the English throne, the Duke of York returned to England with him. He married Anne Hyde, daughter of the Earl of Clarendon with whom he had eight children, all but two of which would die before their fifth year. Anne died in March 1671. James was converted to Roman Catholicism sometime about 1668. In 1673 he married the staunchly Catholic Mary of Modena and he became increasingly unpopular in England. Efforts were made to exclude James from the succession. Charles stood by his brother, however, preventing passage of the Exclusion Bill. Charles died without legitimate heirs in 1685, and James succeeded him. He immediately faced an uprising led by his illegitimate nephew, the Duke of Monmouth, which was harshly put down. The severe reprisals of the Bloody Assizes increased the animosity toward James. The new king favored autocratic methods, his principal object seemed to be to fill positions of authority and influence with Roman Catholics. Dislike of him grew and the birth of a son who would have precedence over his Protestant half-sisters helped to bring the opposition to a head. A group of Protestant nobles asked that James’ daughter, Mary and her husband, William, Prince of Orange to come to England with an army. When the Prince of Orange arrived on November 5, 1688, all of the King's Protestant officers defected. The unpopular, autocratic, Catholic king had few followers and was unable to defend himself. He fled, was captured, and was then allowed to escape to France, and William and Mary took the throne. The so-called Glorious Revolution was effectively over. James made an effort to restore himself by landing a force in Ireland in 1689, but the effort failed at the Battle of the Boyne. Other plots for restoration also failed. He would end his life in exile. He died of a stroke in 1701 at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France. He was the last Catholic and the last Stuart King of England.

Bio by: Iola

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  • Maintained by: Find A Grave
  • Added: 31 Dec 2000
  • Find A Grave Memorial 1976
  • Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed ), memorial page for James II (14 Oct 1633–6 Sep 1701), Find A Grave Memorial no. 1976, citing Eglise Paroissiale, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Departement des Yvelines, Île-de-France, France ; Maintained by Find A Grave .