Son of Nathaniel and Rebeckah (Lamb) Viall .
On 21 Nov 1854 Nathaniel Aikin Viall, 26, married Sarah A. Shippey, 19, daughter of Stephen and Julia Shippey, at Oxford, Massachusetts, in a first marriage for both.
On 2 Jan 1861 Sarah A. Shippey, his wife, died at Worcester, Massachusetts, at age 25 in "child bed."
On 30 Jul 1861 Nathaniel mustered into service with Company K of the 15th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry as a Private., being credited to the quota of Oxford, Worcester County, Massachusetts. He was 33 years, 6 months and 6 days old.
On 12 Oct 1861 he was promoted to Corporal.
On 21 Oct 1861 Nathaniel was wounded at The Battle of Ball's Bluff, Leesburg, Virginia, wounded on the arm and taken prisoner.
On 30 Oct 1861 at the "Worcester Palladium", Worcester, Worcester County, Massachusetts, Nathaniel Aikin Viall was included, with 304 other men, among "The Killed Wounded and Missing of the Fifteenth Regiment," after Ball's Bluff.
On 20 Jan 1862 at "The Worcester Daily Spy", Worcester, Worcester County, Massachusetts, Nathaniel A. Viall was mentioned among the released prisoners.
Nathaniel was gained from prison at unknown date, and on 8 Nov 1862 he ended military service with the 15th Massachusetts due to disability.
On 23 Jan 1880, he was admitted at the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Togus, ME, noting that he has lost his left arm. Nathaniel gave his sister Mrs. R. L. (Lucetta) Brady of North Oxford, MA, as next-of-kin upon entry into the Soldiers' Home.
On 14 Jun 1883 Nathaniel, 55, married Frances A. Kelley, daughter of Norman J. and Catherine R. Kelley, at Boston, MA, in a second marriage for both.
He was enumerated in the 1890 US Federal census, Veteran's Schedule in Jun 1890 at Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, as having served in the 15th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, Company E, noting that he lost his left arm.
He died on 8 Jun 1896 at Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts. He was 68 years, 4 months and 15 days old.
On 15 Jun 1896 Frances A. Kelley received a widow's pension based on Nathaniel's service.