Alfonsina Orsini was a Regent of Florence. She governed the Republic of Florence during the absences of her son in the period of 1515–1519. Her rule was feared as a sign of the end of republican government there. She was born from a noble family and raised in the royal court of Naples. She was the spouse of Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici from 1488 and the mother of Lorenzo II de' Medici. She helped restore the Medicis to power after they had been exiled. She worked to secure a French royal marriage for her son, and was also influential at the court of Pope Leo X, her brother-in-law.
Throughout her life, she used her wealth, position, and connections to help the poor and underrepresented. She also used them to further her family's power and wealth. She was a patron of the arts and architecture, both in Florence and in Rome. This included renovation of religious buildings as well as construction of palaces for the family.