Grace Coleridge <I>Toynbee</I> Frankland


Grace Coleridge Toynbee Frankland

Wimbledon, London Borough of Merton, Greater London, England
Death 5 Oct 1946 (aged 87)
Lochawe, Argyll and Bute, Scotland
Burial Dalmally, Argyll and Bute, Scotland
Memorial ID 190733315 View Source

Bacteriologist, Author. She received noted acclaim in the scientific community with her pioneer research in bacteriology during Victorian England when women were not being educated except in the arts. She was the youngest and ninth child of Dr. Joseph Toynbee, an otologist, and his wife Harriet Holmes. She was educated at home before being sent to Germany to study. This was followed by one year at Bedford College in London, England. Her interest in science developed after her marriage on June 17, 1882 to chemist Percy Frankland, second son of Sir Edward Frankland. The couple relocated to Scotland in 1888. She was concerned mainly with public health, personal hygiene, and the danger of sewage causing diseases. Her husband's colleagues admitted that many husbands and wives engaged in scientific projects together without any credit given to the wife, but her husband was the first that gave credit for her independent work. Her husband dedicated his 1882 book “Our Secret Friends and Foes” to her by stating her assistance was invaluable and made working a joy. In 1887 she published a study on micro-organism in the air, which both had undertook research. In 1888, a joint study of micro-organisms in water and soil was published. In 1889 and 1890 more joint papers were published in British science journals on the topic of the chemical reaction that occurred in fermentation processes. In 1892 she had compiled a bacteriological appendix which was published in a joint paper on sugar fermentation. She co-authored “Micro Organisms in Water: Their Significance, Identification and Removal” published in two volumes in 1894. and the biography “Pasteur” in 1898. Independently, she wrote “Bacteria in Daily Life” in 1903. She became a regular contributor to many scientific journals such as “Longman's Magazine” and “Nature.” She covered subjects such as bacteria and carbonated water, typhoid fever epidemics in America, and the plague virus. In 1899 she represented the area of bacteriology at the Women's International Congress. She was elected to the Royal Microscopical Society in 1900 and one of the first twelve women to be admitted to the Linnean Society of London. After the election of Nobel Prize recipient, Marie Curie , as Foreign Fellow of the Chemical Society, she was one of nineteen female scientists who wrote in December of 1904 a petition to the Chemical Society to request fellowship in their society; they had been refused in the past and were again in 1905. Admission to this group would be a stepping stone for the women to the Royal Society. The Chemical Society fully admitted women scientists in 1920 only after a national law was enforced. The couple had one son and enjoyed traveling, music, and other interest outside of science. Since she lived in Scotland during her productive period, she is commemorated as part of the Dundee Women's Trail. Her papers are archived with her husband's at the University of Manchester in England. Her devoted husband died 23 days after her death.

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