Publisher, Author, Physician. He is remember for publishing the works of numerous writers of Victorian England, sometimes publishing their very first piece. At the age of 26, he moved his publishing company in 1851 to 142 Strand Street in London. For the next seven years, besides publishing, he sold books, while his family's residence was upstairs over the printing shop. There were extra rooms for a rotating list of literary guests. Most of his guests were young, very talented, and mainly poor, yet in time would be successful and known world-wide. His literary guests included Mary Ann Evans, before she became her pen name “George Eliot;” the author George H. Lewes, who was introduced to Evans by Chapman; Harriet Martineau, and her brother, Dr. James Martineau, who were Unitarian leaders; Ralph Waldo Emerson, American author; Horace Greeley, American journalist and homeopathic; Lydia Ernestine Becker, women's right supporter, and Thomas H. Huxley and Herbert Spencer, members of the Science X-Club. Chapman published each of these young writers' pieces at the beginning of their career. He was their enabler, the man who gave them their start. With these writers, he had resuscitated John Stuart Mill's radical thinking newspaper, the “Westminster Review.” Spencer published his essay, “Theory of Population Deduced from the General Law of Annual Fertility” in the 2nd edition of the "Westminster Review"; he was hoping to be in the very first edition. Chapman often employed young men who were destined to become clergy but were exiled from Oxford College after refusing to sign the Thirty-Nine Articles of Church of England. Chapman was willing to publish the books and articles written by these young man, which included John Henry Newman's younger brother, Francis; poet Arthur Hugh Clough , and author and historian James Anthony Froude . Charles Darwin's first employment was as a scientific reviewer for the Westminster Review. In 1854, John Tyndell and Huxley became the managers of the scientific section of the periodical. European political exiles came to his publishing shop: from Italy, Giuseppe Mazzini and from Russia, Karl Marx. Mary Ann Evans became his co-editor for a short time until Chapman's wife and mistress forced her to leave. In 1846, he had published the first English translation of David Strass, “Life of Jesus,” which had been translated by Mary Ann Evans. He was the third son of a chemist, William Chapman and his first wife. His mother died when he was 3 years old. Early in his life, Chapman was an apprentice to a watchmaker but left to join his brother, Thomas, to study medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland. He left school to travel to Paris, France to study and then back to England to finish his degree in 1857 at St. George's Hospital in London. In 1843 in Paris, he married Suzanne Brewitt, who was 14 years his senior and the heir to a wealthy lace maker. Using Suzanne's inheritance he purchase his original shop from Mill. He wrote “Human Nature: A Philosophical Exposition of Divine Institution of Reward and Punishment” before relocating his shop to Strand Street. In April 1852, the newspaper published his homeopathy article against smoking and supporting being a vegetarian, “Physical Puritanism.” He, Huxley, and Darwin were followers of Dr. James Manby Gully, noted homeopathic. In 1857, he began to practice medicine advocating the spinal ice bag for the treatment of sea sickness and cholera. In 1865, he published a book, “Sea Sickness: Its Nature and Treatment.” Some of his Westminster Reviews were published in America. In 1860, he gave his business to George Mainwarning and in 1874 relocated to Paris but continued to edit the "Westminster Review". He died after being hit by a horse-drawn taxis.
Bio by: Linda Davis