Revolutionary Figure. He was the author of the Russian Constitution and one of the chief planners and executioners of the 1917 October Revolution. He was born in the village of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, and spent his much of his early life in prison or in Siberian exile because of his radical views and actions against the government. He joined the Bolshevik Party headed by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin in 1903 and participated in violent uprisings against the government during the Russian Revolution of 1905. In July 1918 he co-signed Lenin's execution order condemning Czar Nicholas II and the royal family to death by firing squad. He was elected chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets in January 1918 and secretary of the Bolshevik Party the following year. He died after contracting typhus at the age of 33. In 1924 the city of Yekaterinburg was renamed Sverdlovsk in his honor.
Bio by: Nils M. Solsvik Jr.