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CPT Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier

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CPT Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier Famous memorial Veteran

Birth
Banbridge, County Down, Northern Ireland
Death
1848 (aged 51–52)
Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut, Canada
Burial
Buried or Lost at Sea Add to Map
Memorial ID
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Explorer. He was a noted Irish military officer of the Royal Navy and polar explorer who participated in six expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic before serving as Second-In-Command and as Captain onboard the 'HMS Terror' who along with Captain John Franklin of the 'HMS Erebus' was on an expedition to find the Northwest Passage, a sea route to Asia, via the northern edge of North America. He was one of thirteen children born in Banbridge, County Down, Ireland, to solicitor George Crozier and his wife Jane Elliot Graham on September 17, 1796. He was named after his father's good friend Francis Rawdon-Hastings, the 1st Marquess of Hastings. He was educated locally and later moved with his family to Avonmore House which his father had built-in 1792. He joined the Royal Navy at the age of thirteen and went onto serve on board the 'HMS Hamadryad' in 1810. He then served on board the 'HMS Briton' and visited Pitcairn Island where he met one of the surviving mutineers from the 'HMS Bounty' in 1814. Three years later, he received his certificate to be a mate and served onboard the 'HMS Doterel' during a trip to the Cape of Good Hope. He then joined Captain William Parry's second expedition to the Arctic to traverse the Northwest Passage in 1821. He also served as a midshipman on Captain William Parry's ship, the 'HMS Fury' and Captain Lyon's ship, the 'HMS Hecia.' He accompanied Captain William Parry for a second trip, but this time on board the ship, 'HMS Hecia,' which resulted in the sinking of the 'HMS Fury' off the coast of Somerset Island. In 1826, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant and joined Captain William Parry in another attempt to reach the North Pole, but this failed. In 1827, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society for his conducting valuable astronomical and magnetic studies while on the three expeditions with Captain William Parry. He then served on the frigate 'HMS Stag' and served in the Liberal Wars off the coast of the country of Portugal beginning in 1831. A longtime friend of Captain John Clark Ross he became his Second-In Command and served onboard the 'HMS Cove' to search for twelve missing British whaling ships in the Arctic in 1835. In 1837, he was again promoted, this time to the rank of Commander. In 1839, he joined Captain James Clark Ross on the Ross Expedition as his Second-In-Command of a four-year voyage to explore the Antarctic continent with the ships, 'HMS Erebus' and 'HMS Terror.' In 1841, he was promoted to the rank of Captain. The ships returned to the Antarctic in 1842 and made significant finds while penetrating the pack ice including large parts of the continent including the Ross Sea, Mount Erebus, Ross Island, and the Ross Ice Shelf. In 1843, he was named a Fellow of the Royal Society for his recognition of his outstanding work on magnetism. In 1845, he joined Captain Sir John Franklin's expedition in search of the Northwest Passage as Captain of the 'HMS Erebus.' On May 19, 1845, Captain Sir John Franklin and a crew of about 129 men boarded two ships, the 'HMS Erebus' and the 'HMS Terror' for what was to be a three-year journey. Also on board were provisions that included more than 136,000 pounds of flour, 3,684 gallons of high-proof alcohol and 33,000 pounds of tinned meat, soup and vegetables. The ships set sail from the port of Greenhithe, England, to the Arctic but were never seen or heard from again. In 1848, and over the next few years, several search parties were sent all over the Canadian Arctic landscape including many which were led by Sir Francis Leopold McClintock, but only a few relics of the expedition were ever found. From 1853 to 1854, and 1856 to 1857, several more prominent pieces were found including some written notes by Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier and Captain James Fitzjames. It was revealed that nine navy officers and fifteen crewmen had died and Captain Sir John Franklin (and now Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier was now in charge of the 'HMS Terror' and Captain James Fitzjames was in charge of the 'HMS Erebus') had also died on June 11, 1847, while the surviving men abandoned their ships that had become stuck in thick pack ice near King William Island, North-Western Territory (now Nunavut, Canada), and continued on foot to locate civilization towards Back's Great Fish River on the Canadian mainland. It is also thought that the surviving men had been seen by local natives in the Baker Lake area, about 400 kilometres (250 mi) to the south, but all later disappeared and eventually perished. The actual date of death of the 129 men is not known except Captain Sir John Franklin's on June 11, 1847. It is thought the men all perished between 1845 to 1848. Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier and Captain James Fitzjames are listed between 1846 and circa April 26, 1848. In 1948, the Canadian writer and environmentalist Farley Mowat found a very ancient cairn, but the cairn was not made of normal Eskimo construction. Found inside were fragments of a hardwood box with dovetail joints. In 1976, three graves from the lost Franklin expedition were found on Beechey Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, by marine surveyors. The graves belonged to Marine William Braine, Stoker John Torrington, and Able Seaman John Hartnell. The team exhumed the bodies in 1984 and found them to be perfectly preserved, later determining that they had died from lead poisoning. Over the years since the graves were found several articles including human bones, tin cans, and man-made tools have been found by natives on surrounding islands. It was later discovered that the remaining crew were so hungry that they had turned to cannibalism because of starvation. In September 2014, after several failed attempts to locate the ships, the 'HMS Erebus' was finally located in the south of King William Island in Nunavut. Two years later in September 2016, the 'HMS Terror' was found in Terror Bay, further north, finally solving the almost 170-year-old mystery. The story of Captain Sir John Franklin and his brave crew has been featured in several books, poems, films, television documentaries, and songs. The latest being the American horror drama anthology television series, "The Terror" based on the 2007 novel of the same name by Dan Simmons which premiered on the AMC television network on March 25, 2018, and stars British actor Jared Harris as CPT Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier. A memorial to the crew of the expedition was unveiled by order of the British Parliament in 1858, in the Painted Hall of London's Greenwich Hospital. It was later moved to Greenwich Royal Naval College's Chapel in 1937 and was re-erected in the entrance of the former college in late 2009. In 2008, Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier's home town of Banbridge, Ireland, hosted a memorial event, which included a service of remembrance and thanksgiving at the Church of the Holy Trinity, which was attended by more than a hundred descendants of CPT Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier and other officers of Captain Sir John Franklin's lost expedition and those who searched for it, along with the chairman of Banbridge Council, and several Arctic historians, including Michael Smith and Russell Potter. Several Geographical areas have also been named in honor of Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier including, Cape Crozier on the eastern side of Ross Island, Antarctica, Cape Crozier on the western flank of King William Island, in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Crozier at the western entrance of the Bay of Mercy on Banks Island, in the Canadian Arctic, Crozier Strait which lies between Cornwallis and Bathurst Islands, in the Canadian Arctic, Crozier River, near Fury and Hecla Strait in the Canadian Arctic, Crozier Point on Spitsbergen, in the Arctic north of Norway, Crozier Channel, to the north of Banks Island in the Canadian Arctic, Crozier Island in the Kennedy Channel, between Greenland and Ellesmere Island and The lunar crater Crozier, located at 13.5° S, 50.8° E on the Moon's near side. As of 2020 Parks Canada has been excavating the sites of both shipwrecks. In 2021 Parks Canada, plans to try and search the wrecks once again.
Explorer. He was a noted Irish military officer of the Royal Navy and polar explorer who participated in six expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic before serving as Second-In-Command and as Captain onboard the 'HMS Terror' who along with Captain John Franklin of the 'HMS Erebus' was on an expedition to find the Northwest Passage, a sea route to Asia, via the northern edge of North America. He was one of thirteen children born in Banbridge, County Down, Ireland, to solicitor George Crozier and his wife Jane Elliot Graham on September 17, 1796. He was named after his father's good friend Francis Rawdon-Hastings, the 1st Marquess of Hastings. He was educated locally and later moved with his family to Avonmore House which his father had built-in 1792. He joined the Royal Navy at the age of thirteen and went onto serve on board the 'HMS Hamadryad' in 1810. He then served on board the 'HMS Briton' and visited Pitcairn Island where he met one of the surviving mutineers from the 'HMS Bounty' in 1814. Three years later, he received his certificate to be a mate and served onboard the 'HMS Doterel' during a trip to the Cape of Good Hope. He then joined Captain William Parry's second expedition to the Arctic to traverse the Northwest Passage in 1821. He also served as a midshipman on Captain William Parry's ship, the 'HMS Fury' and Captain Lyon's ship, the 'HMS Hecia.' He accompanied Captain William Parry for a second trip, but this time on board the ship, 'HMS Hecia,' which resulted in the sinking of the 'HMS Fury' off the coast of Somerset Island. In 1826, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant and joined Captain William Parry in another attempt to reach the North Pole, but this failed. In 1827, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society for his conducting valuable astronomical and magnetic studies while on the three expeditions with Captain William Parry. He then served on the frigate 'HMS Stag' and served in the Liberal Wars off the coast of the country of Portugal beginning in 1831. A longtime friend of Captain John Clark Ross he became his Second-In Command and served onboard the 'HMS Cove' to search for twelve missing British whaling ships in the Arctic in 1835. In 1837, he was again promoted, this time to the rank of Commander. In 1839, he joined Captain James Clark Ross on the Ross Expedition as his Second-In-Command of a four-year voyage to explore the Antarctic continent with the ships, 'HMS Erebus' and 'HMS Terror.' In 1841, he was promoted to the rank of Captain. The ships returned to the Antarctic in 1842 and made significant finds while penetrating the pack ice including large parts of the continent including the Ross Sea, Mount Erebus, Ross Island, and the Ross Ice Shelf. In 1843, he was named a Fellow of the Royal Society for his recognition of his outstanding work on magnetism. In 1845, he joined Captain Sir John Franklin's expedition in search of the Northwest Passage as Captain of the 'HMS Erebus.' On May 19, 1845, Captain Sir John Franklin and a crew of about 129 men boarded two ships, the 'HMS Erebus' and the 'HMS Terror' for what was to be a three-year journey. Also on board were provisions that included more than 136,000 pounds of flour, 3,684 gallons of high-proof alcohol and 33,000 pounds of tinned meat, soup and vegetables. The ships set sail from the port of Greenhithe, England, to the Arctic but were never seen or heard from again. In 1848, and over the next few years, several search parties were sent all over the Canadian Arctic landscape including many which were led by Sir Francis Leopold McClintock, but only a few relics of the expedition were ever found. From 1853 to 1854, and 1856 to 1857, several more prominent pieces were found including some written notes by Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier and Captain James Fitzjames. It was revealed that nine navy officers and fifteen crewmen had died and Captain Sir John Franklin (and now Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier was now in charge of the 'HMS Terror' and Captain James Fitzjames was in charge of the 'HMS Erebus') had also died on June 11, 1847, while the surviving men abandoned their ships that had become stuck in thick pack ice near King William Island, North-Western Territory (now Nunavut, Canada), and continued on foot to locate civilization towards Back's Great Fish River on the Canadian mainland. It is also thought that the surviving men had been seen by local natives in the Baker Lake area, about 400 kilometres (250 mi) to the south, but all later disappeared and eventually perished. The actual date of death of the 129 men is not known except Captain Sir John Franklin's on June 11, 1847. It is thought the men all perished between 1845 to 1848. Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier and Captain James Fitzjames are listed between 1846 and circa April 26, 1848. In 1948, the Canadian writer and environmentalist Farley Mowat found a very ancient cairn, but the cairn was not made of normal Eskimo construction. Found inside were fragments of a hardwood box with dovetail joints. In 1976, three graves from the lost Franklin expedition were found on Beechey Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, by marine surveyors. The graves belonged to Marine William Braine, Stoker John Torrington, and Able Seaman John Hartnell. The team exhumed the bodies in 1984 and found them to be perfectly preserved, later determining that they had died from lead poisoning. Over the years since the graves were found several articles including human bones, tin cans, and man-made tools have been found by natives on surrounding islands. It was later discovered that the remaining crew were so hungry that they had turned to cannibalism because of starvation. In September 2014, after several failed attempts to locate the ships, the 'HMS Erebus' was finally located in the south of King William Island in Nunavut. Two years later in September 2016, the 'HMS Terror' was found in Terror Bay, further north, finally solving the almost 170-year-old mystery. The story of Captain Sir John Franklin and his brave crew has been featured in several books, poems, films, television documentaries, and songs. The latest being the American horror drama anthology television series, "The Terror" based on the 2007 novel of the same name by Dan Simmons which premiered on the AMC television network on March 25, 2018, and stars British actor Jared Harris as CPT Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier. A memorial to the crew of the expedition was unveiled by order of the British Parliament in 1858, in the Painted Hall of London's Greenwich Hospital. It was later moved to Greenwich Royal Naval College's Chapel in 1937 and was re-erected in the entrance of the former college in late 2009. In 2008, Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier's home town of Banbridge, Ireland, hosted a memorial event, which included a service of remembrance and thanksgiving at the Church of the Holy Trinity, which was attended by more than a hundred descendants of CPT Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier and other officers of Captain Sir John Franklin's lost expedition and those who searched for it, along with the chairman of Banbridge Council, and several Arctic historians, including Michael Smith and Russell Potter. Several Geographical areas have also been named in honor of Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier including, Cape Crozier on the eastern side of Ross Island, Antarctica, Cape Crozier on the western flank of King William Island, in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Crozier at the western entrance of the Bay of Mercy on Banks Island, in the Canadian Arctic, Crozier Strait which lies between Cornwallis and Bathurst Islands, in the Canadian Arctic, Crozier River, near Fury and Hecla Strait in the Canadian Arctic, Crozier Point on Spitsbergen, in the Arctic north of Norway, Crozier Channel, to the north of Banks Island in the Canadian Arctic, Crozier Island in the Kennedy Channel, between Greenland and Ellesmere Island and The lunar crater Crozier, located at 13.5° S, 50.8° E on the Moon's near side. As of 2020 Parks Canada has been excavating the sites of both shipwrecks. In 2021 Parks Canada, plans to try and search the wrecks once again.

Bio by: The Silent Forgotten



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