Henry enlisted from Boston as a Quartermaster Sergeant in the 11th Massachusetts Infantry on 13 June 1861. He served with valor at First Bull Run and Antietam, and was promoted through the ranks to Captain and Assistant QM on 26 November 1862. He joined the US Volunteers QM Department on 15 February 1863, and was promoted Lt. Col on 11 July 1864, after which her served under Gen. Philip Sheridan as Chief QM of the Army of the Potomac's Cavalry Corps. For his service, he was breveted Colonel on 13 March 1865.
He was mustered out of service in Little Rock on 17 July 1867. He thereafter served as Treasurer of Arkansas from 1867 to 1874. In 1880 he was single and serving as the U.S. Indian Agent for the Southern Utes in Colorado. He later worked for the Utah Commission (formed by Congress to oversee issues related to granting Utah statehood).
Henry joined the Grand Army of the Republic (G.A.R.), and was the Department of Utah Commander in 1890. He also was Companion #00777 in the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U.S., the first post-War veterans' organization. He was commissioned Major in the commissary department for service in the Spanish-American War in 1898-99.
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