Author. Generally considered one of the most influential authors of the twentieth century, James Joyce was one of the first authors to challenge the traditional concept of what a novel could be, alienating most of his contemporaries while earning a reputation that endures in literary scholarship. He was educated at Jesuit schools, including University College, Dublin. Joyce's first publication was an essay on Ibsen, printed in "Fortnightly Review" in 1900 while he was still a student. His first published book, 1907's "Chamber Music," was a collection of poems that showed the influence of Elizabethan verse. He followed this with "Dubliners" (1914), a less conventional short story collection examining issues of childhood and adolescense in his native city. Joyce followed this with the semi-autobiographical novel "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man" in 1916, the play "Exiles" in 1918, and another novel, "Ulysses," in 1922. Increasingly, his prose moved away from traditional forms, often playing games with language and imagery in what appeared to be attempts to evoke rather than describe. His Homer-inspired "Ulysses" especially would touch off several controversies about artistic propriety. It was banned in the United States until 1933, with its detractors calling it obscene and unreadable; later critics have praised the book as a complex work of genius. Struggling with glaucoma, Joyce would publish his final work, "Finnegans Wake," in 1939. Even more radical than "Ulysses," "Finnegans Wake" would further polarize the literary world. Many critics, even to this day, suspect the entire book to be a fraud, though most recent scholars praise the book's intense wordplay and linguistic effort as the hallmarks of a literary masterpiece.
Bio by: Stuthehistoryguy
Nora Barnacle Joyce