Orchestra Conductor. Born in Parma, Italy, he studied music and played the cello at the conservatories of Parma and Milan before joining an Italian opera company. While the company was performing the opera "Aida" in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1886 the conductor was booed. Although only nineteen years of age, Toscanini took over the rostrum and had his first experience as conductor. He continued to conduct and in 1891 he opened the season at the Teatro Carlo Felice in Genoa and by 1898 was musical director of the Teatro alla Scala ("La Scala") opera house in Milan. His fame steady rose after that point, and he became one of the world's most famous conductors. He was employed by the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City, New York from 1908 to 1915 before returning to La Scala. In Italy Toscanini was a leading critic of the fascist rule of Benito Mussolini, and refused to include the Fascist hymn "Giovinezza" in his concerts. While in Bologna, Italy in 1930 he was assaulted by a group of Mussolini's supporters. Escaping the fascist regime in 1938, he went to live in the United States. Over the next twenty years he conducted the New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra and created the National Broadcasting Orchestra of America. He spent his last years in New York City, where he passed away at age 89 in 1957. In 1987 he was honored with a posthumous Grammy Award, and in 1989 he was commemorated on a United States Postage Stamp.
Bio by: Jelena