He was the second Russian tsar (1645–1676) of the house of Romanov. Up to the age of five, according to tradition, he was surrounded by servants and nurses. He then came under the charge of a tutor, a boyar named Boris Ivanovich Morozov, who exerted great influence over his pupil for the next 30 years. At age five he learned to read, and at age seven he knew how to write. Contrary to his father, Mikhail Fyodorovich, who died when Aleksey was 16, he was quick-witted. He received some formal education, but it was limited to practical subjects needed to conduct the affairs of the state. He was taught history, geography, mathematics and natural sciences, as well as military and foreign affairs. He liked to philosophize and was a passionate hunter. He was an active participant of the Council Code of 1649, which became the legislative base for the Russian society for many decades. He actively involved foreign experts into working for Russia. Regiments of "foreign system" received active support under his rule. The role and significance of the Boyars' Duma and Assemblies of Land under Aleksey Mikhailovich decreased for good. Convocations of Land Assemblies stopped at all after 1653. The Boyars' Duma still remained, but inside of it the Close Duma consisting of tsar's confidants gathered strength. The role of departmental bureaucracy was steadily growing. During the reign, he a church dissent took place, leading to toughening of struggle of the church and the state against Old Believers. In collision with Patriarch Nikon the tendency of establishing priority of the church power over the imperial power was changed. He conducted active foreign policy. All his reign was marked with almost non-stop wars. He undertook measures for rapprochement of patrimonial and manorial land properties, and pursued the policy of mercantilism and protectionism. Under the reign he had numerous public revolts burst out: Stepan Razin's peasant war, Copper and Salt revolts, etc. The borders of Russia extended due to Ukraine, Eastern Siberia, the Far East and other lands, which were annexed to the state. One of the reasons of his early aging was his fatness, excessive even by Moscow standards of that time.
Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov