Davis, Henrietta Vinton (August 15, 1860 - November 23, 1941) was an United States|American, Orator|elocutionist, dramatist, impersonator.
Proclaimed by Marcus Garvey to be the "greatest woman of the (African) race today". She has come to be considered to be the physical, intellectual, and spiritual link between the Abolitionist movement of Frederick Douglass and the African Redemption Movement of the UNIA-ACL and Marcus Garvey.
Henrietta Vinton Davis was born in the city of Baltimore to musician Mansfield Vinton and Mary Ann (Johnson) Davis. She received her public school education in Washington, DC. At the early age of fifteen she passed the necessary examination and was awarded the position of a teacher in the public schools of Maryland.
After a period of time teaching in Maryland, she went to teach in the state of Louisiana.
She later returned to Maryland to care for her ailing mother bearing with her the certificate of the Board of Education. In 1878, and only in her late teens, she became the first African-American woman employed by the Office of the Recorder of Deeds in Washington, DC under George A. Sheridan as a copyist. In 1881 Frederick Douglass was appointed Recorder of Deeds.
Within a year Miss Davis began her elocution and dramatic art education under the tutelage of Miss Marguerite E. Saxton of Washington. On April 25, 1883, she was introduced by the Honorable Frederick Douglass before a distinguished integrated audience. She went on to appear in New London, CT., New York State, Boston, and "more than a dozen of the larger cities of the Eastern and Middle States". During the summer of 1883 Miss Davis (under the management of James M. Trotter and William H Dupree) made a tour of Boston, Worcester, and New Bedford, Mass.; Providence and Newport, Rhode Island; Hartford and New Haven, CT; and New York City, Albany and Saratoga, NY.
During this time she continued perfecting her craft under Professor Edwin Lawrence of New York and Rachael Noah, of Boston Massachusetts. She also attended the Boston School of Oratory.
Her performances consisted of a diverse spectrum of works from Paul Lawrence Dunbar's Negro dialects to such works as "Romeo and Juliet"; "As you like it"; "Mary Queen of Scots"; "Cleopatra's Dying Speech"; "The Battle"; by Sciller; and "How Tom Sawyer Got His Fence Whitewashed" by Mark Twain. She is considered the first African American to have made an atttempt at Shakesperean delineations. On January 17, 1884 she appeared before a crowded house in Melodeon Hall, Cincinnati. In 1893 she started her own company in Chicago, traveling to the Caribbean, and collaborated on writing Our Old Kentucky Home with distinguished journalist and future Garveyite John Edward Bruce.
During this period she was a supporter of the Populist Party. Later she backed the Socialist Party.
While traveling in the Caribbean, she learned of the work of Marcus Garvey. In 1919, she accepted Garvey's invitation to speak at the Palace Casino in Harlem, NYC. She decided to give up her career to work with Garvey and the UNIA-ACL, becoming the UNIA's first International Organizer, a director of the Black Star Line and the second Vice-President of the corporation.
At the UNIA-ACL convention in August 1920, she was one of the signatories of the Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World. Among the 54 declarations made in this document are resolutions that the colors Red, Black and Green are to be the symbolic colors of the African race and the term "nigger" cease being used. Furthermore, it demands that the word "Negro" be written with a capital "N".
In 1921, she rose in rank to become the fourth assistant President-General of the UNIA-ACL. She established UNIA-ACL divisions in Cuba; Guadeloupe; St. Thomas, Virgin Islands; Port au Prince, Haiti; Trinidad and Jamaica.
Unseated by Garvey in June 1923 in an effort to quell dissent in the UNIA's New York headquarters, she was reelected during the August 1924 convention. On August 25, 1924 she chaired the convention meeting as the Fourth-Assistant President General of the UNIA. Later that month she traveled to Liberia, Africa as the only woman in the UNIA delegation seeking consent to establish a UNIA-ACL colony in Liberia. In that same year she was a member of a committee, which delivered petitions to U.S. President Calvin Coolidge seeking Garvey's exoneration on mail fraud charges. At the 1929 International Convention of the UNIA she was elected UNIA Secretary General.
By 1932 she broke with Garvey and became first Assistant President General of the rival UNIA, Inc. In the 1934 convention she was elected President of the rival organization.
On November 23, 1941 she passed away in Saint Elizabeth's Hospital, Washington, DC at the age of eighty-one years.
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