|Death: ||May 18, 1871|
In 1871 William Tecumseh Sherman visited Texas concerning complaints against Indians from Indian Territory. The government ensured Indian containment with a ring of defensive forts.
Sherman left San Antonio on 2 May 1871, accompanied by Maj. Randolph B. Marcy, two aides, and 17 mounted black troopers of the 10th Infantry. He traveled north through forts Concho, Griffin, and Belknap. On 17 May 1871, he reached Fort Richardson. The party saw no Indians, and Sherman believed the reports from Texas were without merit.
On 15 May 1871, over a hundred Kiowas, Comanches, Kiowa-Apaches, Arapahoes, and Cheyennes from the Fort Sill Reservation crossed the Red River into Texas. Satank, Satanta, Big Tree, and Maman-ti led the group.
On 16 May, the war party reached Flint Creek on the Salt Creek Prairie in Young County, 20 miles west of Fort Richardson.
On 17 May, the Indians allowed General Sherman's group to pass 1/2 mile from their position on the conical hill. Maman-ti's magic predicted an attack on a second group of whites to pass would be successful.
On 18 May, the Indians attacked a freighting wagon train belonging to Henry traveling on the Butterfield Overland Mail route. They killed the wagon master and six teamsters and allowed five to escape. The Indians suffered one dead and five wounded. One of the escaped teamsters, Thomas Brazeal, reached Fort Richardson and told his story to Sherman and Col. Ranald Slidell Mackenzie, the post commander.
Sherman ordered Mackenzie to pursue the Indians with three companies of his Fourth Cavalry.
On 27 May, Mackenzie arrested Satank, Satanta, and Big Tree on the front porch of the Fort Sill commandant.
Sherman ordered the three prisoners be tried for murder in the civil courts in Jacksboro since Young County was unorganized at the time.
On 8 June, while being transported to Texas, Satank was killed trying to escape.
On 5 and 6 July Satanta and Big Tree were found guilty, and sentenced to hang. This was the second time Indians had been tried in civil courts.
Texas Governor Edmund J. Davis commuted the Indians' sentences to life imprisonment and in October 1873, they were paroled.
The Warren Wagon Train raid caused General Sherman ordered soldiers to begin offensive operations against all Indians found off the reservation.
Warren Wagon Train Massacre Site
Created by: Searchers of our Past
Record added: Feb 19, 2010
Find A Grave Memorial# 48335175