Bratskoe WWI Military Cemetery (defunct)

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Moscow, Moscow Federal City, Russia Add to Map
Memorials 9 added (11% photographed)

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July 19 (August 1) 1914 The Russian Empire entered the First World War. Soon after, the Grand Duchess Elizaveta Fyodorovna initiated the creation of the Bratskoe (Brotherly) Cemetery in Moscow.
On September 6 (19) at the United Meeting of the City Council and Vowel Commission on the events caused by the war of 1914, it was decided to "recognize the need for the establishment of a special cemetery for soldiers who fell in holy war.” Subcommittee on the creation of the cemetery was headed by the Moscow City Council's vowel and the head physician of the Aleksandrovskaya (formerly the Gaazov) Hospital S. V. Puchkov.
Immediately after the purchase of the site work began on the planning of the Bratskoe cemetery by engineer S.S. Shestakov. He visited the Forest Cemetery in Riga and Bratskoe Cemetery in Sevastopol to get acquainted with their arrangement. According to Shestakov, the cemetery "was supposed to receive a special device, corresponding to its special purpose.” Bratskoe cemetery was fundamentally different from the traditional necropolis by a large number of trees, between which were the graves. In the basis of the composition of the cemetery lay the system of diagonal paths of the manor garden. In the central part, a green open staircase was planned with concentric rows of graves around the proposed temple, later the temple was decided to be erected elsewhere.
In the beginning of 1915 architect R.I. Klein joined in the planning of the cemetery and proposed to build two museums dedicated to the war near the future church. In one of them it was planned to place the relevant literature, and in the other military trophies. Around the cemetery it was intended to place enemy weapons and arrange a semblance of forts.
On December 10 (23), the guardian of the cemetery S. V. Puchkov delivered a report on the state of affairs before Nicholas II. After that, the emperor ordered to increase the cemetery territory by 8 dessiatins at the expense of private and state lands. It was decided to build a direct passage to the cemetery from the Petrograd Highway. In 1915 the Moscow City Duma allocated 71,520 rubles for the work on the cemetery. The patronage of Bratskoe cemetery was undertaken by Grand Duchess Elizaveta Fyodorovna.
On February 15 (28), 1915 Bratskoe cemetery was opened with a temporary chapel and the first burials. The ceremony began at the church near the Sergievo-Elizavetinskiy refuge for mutilated warriors of the Russo-Japanese War. The Bishop of Mozhaisk, Demetrius, served a requiem there, after which Elizaveta Fyodorovna and other officials, together with the clergy, went to the cemetery to attend funerals.
After the October Revolution of 1917, an armed uprising began in Moscow, which lasted about a week and ended with the establishment of Soviet power in the city. On November 26, 1917 at the Bratskoe cemetery took place a funeral took of 37 people, mostly cadets who died in battles with the Bolsheviks.
In the period from 1918 to 1920, after the declaration of the policy of the Red Terror, at Bratskoe Cemetery and in its vicinity Bolsheviks carried out mass executions. On September 5, 1918, Bishop Ephraim, archpriest Ivan Vostorgov, interior ministers N.A. Maklakov and A.N. Khvostov, chairman of the State Council Ivan Shcheglovitov and senator S.P. Beletsky were shot in the vicinity of Bratskoe cemetery. It is not possible to name the exact number of victims of executions, since reliable statistics do not exist.
During the civil war, the soldiers of the Red Army and the White Guards were buried at the Bratskoe cemetery. Until 1923, on the "Alley of Pilots" were buried aviators who died in the testing of aircrafts.
In 1925 Bratskoe cemetery had closed its burial grounds and was transferred to the Garden and Park Department of Moscow Communal Services. According to recollections of eyewitnesses, in 1926 the cemetery had “a view of the park with flower beds, properly located paths, along which are seen graves with inscriptions and thousands graves without inscriptions.”
In 1932 the cemetery was liquidated. In the central part of the former cemetery was a park with an area of 9 hectares and in the northeastern part the greenhouses were set up. Almost all the tombstones were demolished, except for the granite monument at the grave of the student S.A. Schlichter, but the burials themselves remained untouched. Despite this, according to eyewitnesses, individual burials continued in the cemetery until the 1940s. The cemetery was finally liquidated in the late 1940s, when mass construction began in the area of Peschanaya Street, then the Spaso-Preobrazhenskaya Church was demolished. Part of the territory of the necropolis was built up.
In the late 1950s, the Tarakanovka River, running along the border of the park, was enclosed in a collector, and the cinema "Leningrad" appeared in the park.
In 1998, with the support of the Moscow government in the south-western part of the park, a memorial zone with an area of 0.78 hectares was created. On the hill, from which children skate in the winter, a new chapel of the Transfiguration of Our Savior was open.
In 2014, the grand-nephews of Grand Duke Nikolay Nikolayevich Romanov Jr, princes Nikolay Romanovich and Dimitriy Romanovich appealed to the government of Russia with a request for the reburial of the remains of the Grand Duke and his wife Anastasia Chernogorskaya in Russia.
On April 30, 2015 their remains were buried in the Chapel of the Transfiguration of Our Savior at Bratskoe Cemetery.

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  • Added: 5 Mar 2017
  • Find A Grave Cemetery: #2636482