al-Sadat, Anwar b. December 25, 1918 d. October 6, 1981 3rd Egyptian President. He served as President of Egypt from 1970 until his assassination in 1981. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 with Israel's Prime Minister Menachem Begin, he was killed by disgruntled Egyptian Army soldiers for signing a peace treaty with Israel. Born Muhammad Anwar al Sadat, in Mit Abu al-Kum, Egypt, to a poor family of 13 brothers and sisters, his father was an Egyptian farmer and his...[Read More] (Bio by: Kit and Morgan Benson) Cause of death: Assassination by gunshot Monument to the Unknown Soldier, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt
Amenemope Egyptian Pharaoh. His name means "Amun in the Opet Feast", After serving as co-regent with his father, the Pharaoh Psusennes I, he became sole ruler in 993 BC. He ordered the decoration of the chapel of Isis "Mistress of the Pyramids at Giza" and built an extension to a temple at Memphis. He died in 992 BC and was buried with his father at Tanis. His tomb was discovered by Pierre Montet in 1940, and is famous for the gold burial mask and other treasures it contained. His remains were...[Read More] (Bio by: js) Royal Tomb Complex, Tanis, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: Tomb 3, room 2.
Campbell, John Charles b. January 10, 1894 d. February 26, 1942 World War II Victoria Cross Recipient. Born in Thurso, Scotland, he was nicknamed Jock and served as a Brigadier General in command of the 7th Armored Division Support Group, British Army. On the dates of November 21-22, 1941, Brigadier Campbell was commanding the troops, including one regiment of tanks, in the area of Sidi Rezegh, Egypt. His small force was holding this important ground when it was repeatedly attacked by large numbers of enemy German tanks and infantry. Wherever the situation...[Read More] (Bio by: John "J-Cat" Griffith) Cairo War Cemetery, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: K. 171.
Djedefre Egyptian Pharaoh. He ruled for eleven years between 2528 BC and 2520 BC. He reigned during Egypt's Fourth Dynasty and was the first Pharaoh to adopt the title "Son of Ra", reflection of the increasing popularity of that deity. Recently it has been suggested that he may have ordered the construction of the great Sphinx at Giza, although his own pyramid was built at Abu Rawash, eight kilometres north of the Giza plateau. His pyramid was built on a natural rock outcrop which forms 45% of its core...[Read More] (Bio by: js) Abu Rawash Pyramid Complex, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: Pyramid of Djedefre
Djoser Egyptian Pharaoh. He ruled Egypt from approximately 2635 BC until his death in 2610 BC and was the second Pharaoh of Egypt's Third Dynasty. He sent his army on an expedition to subdue the Sinai Peninsular and also ordered expeditions there to mine for turquoise and copper. There is a legend, inscribed on the "Famine Stela", that he rebuilt the temple of Khnum on the Island of Elephentine and in doing so brought a seven year famine to an end. He is best remembered for commissioning the famous...[Read More] (Bio by: js) Saqqara, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: The Step Pyramid of Djoser
Hafez, Abdel Halim b. June 21, 1929 d. March 30, 1977 Without a doubt no living or dead entertainer has ever achieved such a tremendous amount of fame and admiration by so many people in the Arab world of music and beyond. Halim was a master oboe player, he graduated from Academy of Arab Music in 1948. However, what made Halim a superstar was the combination of his acting ability and his warm and romantic voice which got him the nick name of “Nightingale” (Andalib) in Arabic . Since Abdel’s first public appearance in 1952, he had a starting role...[Read More] (Bio by: Sean Tash) Al-Refai Mosque, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt
Stephen Hubert Avenel Haggard, first child of British diplomat Godfrey Digby Napier Haggard and his French Canadian/American wife Georgianna Marie Ruel Haggard, was born on 21 Mar 1911 in Guatemala City, Guatemala, Central America. His middle name Hubert was in honor of his maternal grandfather Hubert Ruel. Stephen's diplomat father had been posted to Guatemala. In the spring of 1912, when Stephen was one year old, he journeyed with his pregnant mother to the United States...[Read More] (Bio by: Anne Philbrick) Heliopolis War Cemetery, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt
Huni Egyptian Pharaoh. He was the last King of Egypt's Third Dynasty. It is believed that he served as a high official under the Pharaoh Djoser before coming to power, probably quite late in life, in 2637 BC. He reigned for twenty four years and built a great fortress on the island of Elephantine in order to secure Egypt's southern borders. He is most famous today as the likely builder of the step pyramid at Meidum, the distinctive shape of which is due to the collapse of the outer layers. He died...[Read More] (Bio by: js) Meidum, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: Meidum pyramid, about 100km south of modern Cairo
Ini, Nyuserre Egyptian Pharaoh. He reigned for approximately twenty-five years from 2416 BC until 2392 BC. During his reign he carried out many important building projects, including a pyramid complex for himself and two smaller ones for his wives. He also completed the unfinished tombs of his predecessors, Neferirkare Kakai, Khentkhaus II and Neferefra, and finished Neferefra's sun temple at Abu Gurab. Contemporary documents suggest that he ordered military expeditions to Libya and also into Asia. His...[Read More] (Bio by: js) Abusir Pyramid Complex, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: Pyramid of Nyuserre Ini
Isesi, Djedkare Egyptian Pharaoh. He ruled from 2414 BC until 2375 BC, during Egypt's Fifth Dynasty. Many surviving royal seals and inscriptions document his reign, as does the so-called Prisse Papyrus, a complete set of administrative documents now held in The Louvre, Paris. Although his pyramid at Saqqara was plundered in antiquity, his mummy remained almost intact, making him one of the earliest Pharaohs whose remains survived into modern times. (Bio by: js) Saqqara, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: Pyramid of Djedkare Isesi
Kaiu, Menkauhor Egyptian Pharaoh. He was a ruler of Egypt during the Fifth Dynasty, reigning for eight years from his accession in 2422 BC. His chief historical significance is that he was the last Pharaoh to build a sun temple, but he is also known from an important quarry inscription in the Sinai Dessert and from a number of fine relief carvings. When he died in 2414 BC he was buried in the so-called "Headless Pyramid" which was discovered by Richard Lepsius in 1842, only to be lost again until its...[Read More] (Bio by: js) Saqqara, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: The Headless Pyramid
Kakai, Neferirkare Egyptian Pharaoh. He was a ruler of Egypt during the Fifth Dynasty, succeeding to the throne on the death of his brother, Sahure, in 2474 BC. Many documents from his reign testify to his personal kindness merciful nature, examples being given of how he spared one courtier from execution and ordered medical care to be provided for another who lay dying at court. When the king himself died in 2464 BC he was buried in a seventy-two metre high pyramid at Abusir, part of a larger mortuary complex...[Read More] (Bio by: js) Abusir Pyramid Complex, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: Pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai
Khaba Egyptian Pharaoh. His name translates as "The Soul Appears" and he ruled Egypt as the fourth king of the Third Dynasty. He reigned from 2643 BC until 2649 BC and sealings found at Hierakonpolis and Elephantine are taken as evidence that his power extended into Southern Egypt. He is best known as being the probable builder of the so-called "Layer Pyramid", a distinctive tomb that represents an unfinished step pyramid. Evidence that this is his burial site comes from inscriptions on stone bowls...[Read More] (Bio by: js) Zawiyet el-Aryan, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: Layer Pyramid, located approximately 2km south of the Giza plateau.
Khafra Egyptian Pharaoh. He ruled during Egypt's Fourth Dynasty, ascending the throne in 2520 BC on the death of his brother, Djedefre. He ruled for approximately twenty-six years and his reign is believed to have been a time of great prosperity in Egypt, as evidenced by the quality of the tombs built by the nobles of his court. When he died in 2494 BC he was buried in what was the second pyramid to be built on the Giza plateau, but is most famous today as the probable builder of the Great Sphinx...[Read More] (Bio by: js) Giza Pyramid Complex, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: Pyramid of Khafra
Khufu Egyptian Pharaoh. He came to the throne in 2589 BC and ruled for approximately twenty three years as the second king of the Fourth Dynasty. His reign saw military expeditions into Sinai, Nubia and Libya and, according to later Egyptian folklore; he was a ruthless ruler who was remembered for his cruelty to his people and family. He is famous as the builder of one of the original seven wonders of the ancient world, the Great Pyramid at Giza, the first to be built there and the largest ever...[Read More] (Bio by: js) Giza Pyramid Complex, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: Pyramid of Khufu
Mahfouz, Naguib b. December 11, 1911 d. August 30, 2006 Nobel Prize Winning Novelist. He was born in Cairo, Egypt. He has published more than 30 novels, short stories, plays, newspaper columns, essays, travelogues, memoirs and political analyses. In 1988, he was the first and only Arab to win Nobel Prize for literature. His most acclaimed works include "Midaq Alley," "Old Egypt," "Whisper of Madness," "Khan al-Khalili," The Cairo Trilogy: "Bayn al Qasrayn," "Qasr al Shawq," "Sukkariya" (Palace Walk, Palace of Desire and Sugar Street) "Children of...[Read More] (Bio by: José L Bernabé Tronchoni) Al-Rashdan Mosque, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt
Mariette, Auguste b. February 11, 1821 d. January 19, 1881 French Egyptologist. He founded the Egyptian Antiquities Service and the famous Egyptian Museum. He is best known for his four year excavations of the Serapeum at Saqqara. He died at Bulaq in 1881 and was buried in a sarcophagus which was later moved to the forecourt in Egyptian Museum in El Cairo. (Bio by: José L Bernabé Tronchoni) Egyptian Museum of El Cairo, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: In the garden of the museum, left in the entrance
Masaharta Egyptian Ruler. He was one of the High Priests of Amun at a time when the priesthood were the effective rulers over parts of ancient Egypt. He ruled the area around Thebes from 1054BC until 1046BC, while the pharaoh Smendes I ruled from Tanis in the North. His mummy was discovered in tomb DB 320 at Deir el Bahri, Thebes in 1881. His remains have since been transferred to Cairo museum. (Bio by: js) Deir el Bahri, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: db320
Menkaura Egyptian Pharaoh. He ruled Egypt during the Fourth Dynasty, coming to power in approximately 2532 BC. He reigned for about eighteen years, and has a reputation for being a relatively benign ruler, especially in comparison with his father, Khafra, the builder of the Great Pyramid. His own pyramid, where he was buried on his death in about 2504 BC, is the smallest of those on the Giza Plateau. His tomb was excavated by Richard William Howard Vyse and John Shae Perring in 1837. A large basalt...[Read More] (Bio by: js) Giza Pyramid Complex, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: Pyramid of Menkaura, the third pyramid at Giza.
Merenre I Egyptian pharaoh. His rule dates from approximately 2283 BC until 2278 BC and lasted for between eleven and thirteen years. The most famous surviving image of this pharaoh shows him as a chid alongside his father, Pepi I. Cast in copper, this statue is made from a material very rarely seen in larger scale Egyptian statues. On gaining the throne, he continued his father's policy of exploration in Nubia, and also took steps to strengthen royal power by making Weni the first governor of Upper...[Read More] (Bio by: js) Saqqara, Cairo, Al Qahirah, Egypt Plot: Pyramid of Merenre I