|Birth: ||Nov. 3, 1787|
|Death: ||Apr., 1869|
When delegates to the American Constitutional convention gathered in Philadelphia, a young woman in Baltimore, Maryland was expecting her first child. The delegates labored through the long hot summer to produce the document, which founded the United States as a model of democracy. Elizabeth Peregoy Jones endured the heat to bear a son, Thomas, on November 3, 1787, who would be the grandfather of many descendents, both in the central and western United States.
While strong discussion and debate about constitutional ratification went on in the winter of 1787-8 and the next year, little Thomas Jones grew and thrived, and in due time welcomed a little brother, William. They were the first two of Jacob and Elizabeth Jones' twelve children. Jacob Jones, and his father, William, came from Harford County, Maryland, which is next to Baltimore County. Their home in the area of Joppa would have been within about twenty-five miles of the city of Baltimore. The Chesapeake Bay is the large body of water nearby and its estuaries place the water near land where the Joneses farmed. The Gunpowder River and falls was another landmark for the area. Now it is a large state park near Baltimore.
There is no information on Thomas Jones' early years. We know that he had farm skills, but had little opportunity for education, since he did not sign his name to legal documents in his later years, but used the "X" which when witnessed, as a valid signature.
Thomas grew as his nation was growing. Under George Washington's presidency the government faced strong Indian resistance to westward migration, encouraged by British fur traders based in Canada, supported by British military. Though treaties had been made with the Indians, they did not agree or understand that such large tracts of land were ceded to the settlers. First military expeditions failed, but finally under the command of General Anthony Wayne a stable force of volunteers was gathered, trained and eventually were triumphant. In 1795 at Fort Greenville, a treaty was signed which ceded a great deal of land in central Ohio to the United States. The Indian menace was removed for several years with this action.
In these years, two political parties, the Federalists and the Republicans represented different viewpoints. The Federalists were in power during the terms of George Washington and John Adams. They were men of wealth, education, and property, who felt that the "common man" was not capable of governing the country. The Republicans, on the other hand, represented agricultural and western interests. They charged that the Federalists would impose tyranny and class preference similar to what Great Britain had used before the Revolution.
Also the French Revolution erupted in this time period. The United States had agreements with France from the time of the American Revolution. Many Americans were in sympathy with the French revolutionaries. However, when the French finally executed their King, continued on a more radical course, and eventually declared war on England and Spain, the United States declared itself neutral. Both England and France interfered with American shipping, until the country was completely aroused. President John Adams defied his Federalist Party members, and worked through diplomatic means to avoid war with England or France. The American navy was built up, and served with distinction against English and French marauders. The French finally signed treaties, which recognized the rights of neutral vessels. Repressive measures by the Federalists against their Republican Party critics however resulted in the election Thomas Jefferson, a Republican candidate, with Aaron Burr for Vice-president for his first term and George Clinton for his second term in 1804.
These developments had their influence upon the Jones family, for not only were lands in Ohio opened for settlement, but the new president, Thomas Jefferson favored the class of small, free farmers and artisans. The nation was growing dramatically and opportunity was everywhere.
Apparently Jacob Jones moved to Ohio in 1806, when Thomas was nineteen. Land records show Jacob purchasing farmland in Steubenville, Jefferson County, Ohio then. Thomas did not follow his father then, nor did other members of his family. On 19 June 1809 he married a Quaker girl, Mary Naylor, in Baltimore. She came from a devout Quaker family whose movements are recorded in the annals of the "Gunpowder monthly meeting." She was separated from the church for marrying Thomas, who was not a Quaker. Her sister, Elizabeth was also dismissed three years later when she married Thomas' brother, John, also in Baltimore. Apparently the Jones family and the Naylor family were friendly. Not only did the children intermarry, but the Naylor family also moved to Ohio to Jefferson County where Jacob Jones settled.
Thomas and Mary stayed in the Baltimore area until after the birth of their first son, James Naylor Jones, on 3 April 1810. About 1811 Thomas and Mary went to join Jacob Jones in Jefferson County. There are no land records for Thomas at this time, and since his father had accumulated over 240 acres of land, we could surmise that Thomas helped his father Jacob develop the land.
Thomas and Mary may have had a daughter born about 1811 in Baltimore who appears in the 1820 census. The next son, Elisha, was born 11 June 1813 in Wayne Township, Jefferson County, Ohio.
Apparently more Jones family members had joined Jacob in Ohio for on 20 November 1815, Samuel Jones (not known as a family member) deeded to William Jones (probably Thomas' uncle) land in Jefferson County (1/2 NE, ½ Sect. 11, T 7, R 2).
On 18 August 1817, Thomas' name appears on his first land record with a deed from the United States government (James Monroe was now President) – NW quarter, Section 22, Township 9, Range 3. We will note that as Jacob Jones' holdings are later listed, Thomas had land near his father. Thomas and Mary also celebrated the birth of their third son, no doubt named for his grandfather, Jacob, born 28 November 1817.
The 1820 Federal Census (taken on January 25, 1821) lists Thomas Jones as the head of household. He was 34 years old (the male 26-45 years). His three boys fit the total of three male children under 10 years old. Mary Naylor Jones, aged 32, fits the category of one female aged 26 to 45, but three little girls under ten years of age provoke questions. One female, under 26 years, and one colored person (free) were also listed.
On 3 March 1823, Elizabeth Ann Jones was born, the only girl listed in family records. From the Ohio State Historical Society, at Columbus Ohio, an original document, the Jefferson County Duplicate of Real Property Tax List, years 1826-1833 was an exciting find for the author. However, (p. 15) Thomas Jones was delinquent in 1826 on taxes for one house in Steubenville, worth $40. Taxes levied were 8 cents and 11 mills (for state and canal tax), county and school tax was 14 cents, and Township tax was 2 cents. His total delinquent tax was 24 cents. On page 26, Aaron Allen, the tax collector, found Thomas also delinquent in personal property tax. He had no cattle, but he was assessed for horses in the value of $40. His state and canal taxes were 8 cents 6 mills, county and school tax 14 cents 4 mills, Township tax, 2 cents 4 mills. The total was 24 cents 8 mills. The rate of taxation in 1826, in Ohio, State tax for dollar valuation, 1 and one-half mills, Canal tax, the same amount, County tax, 2 mills, School tax one-half mill and Township tax, three fourth mill.
On page 80 Thomas is still listed as delinquent in 1828. He owed a total of 25 cents and two mills. In 1829 Thomas is still delinquent on house taxes for a total of 68 cents. Page 97 lists that on 28 December 1829 Thomas Jones' whole house was sold for 68 cents to the state of Ohio. Also on page 259 the house is listed forfeited to the State of Ohio for tax delinquency of $2.52 and 9 mills. The house had not been sold to anyone yet in 1833.
The above information raises a lot of questions as to why Thomas did not pay his taxes. In the same delinquent tax list, Thomas' brother William was cited and also Isaac Mallernee, whose daughter married James Naylor Jones.
Thomas' son Elisha Jones, in his Journal, comments on Thomas' honesty and restraint in speculation. We know that there was a national financial "Panic" in 1834. President Andrew Jackson was very opposed to a national bank for the United States. He did not wish to re-charter it in 1836 and used various measures to curtail its power. Also there was much speculation in western lands, and state banks were issuing currency not backed by gold reserves. By 1834 the whole system began to topple, especially in the Northeast part of the county. However in the period 1826-1833 finances in the West were very good, for the whole region. We must surmise that there were local problems, which Thomas was able to overcome, shortly after the death of his father, Jacob.
In August, 1829 Thomas' father, Jacob Jones died. His brothers John and Stephen were named executors (see section on Jacob Jones). His son James Naylor Jones married Sarah Ann Mallernee, a fourth cousin on the Peregoy side. William Ferguson, Justice of the Peace, married them 16 October 1829, in Jefferson County. As elsewhere stated, Sarah Ann had been working in the Jones home prior to her marriage to James.
Elisha Jones states that his father also moved to Wells Township in 1829. (This seems to indicate that Thomas had abandoned the tax-delinquent house before this time.) On 20 June, 1830, Thomas Jones purchased from Hugh Hammond and wife, Elizabeth, for $2400 (Thomas as assignee of Jacob Jones) SE Corner, Sec. 35, T 5, R 2 with 162 and ½ acres. This was in the Smithfield area, Jefferson County.
In the 1830 census, Thomas is listed as head of household, in Wells Township, Jefferson County, Ohio. That was the man aged 30-40 (he was 43), Jacob was the boy aged 10-15, Elisha (17) was the male aged 15-20, and James Naylor was the man aged 20-30. Females listed were 1 under 5, 1 5-10 (Elizabeth Ann aged 7), and Sarah Ann Mallernee Jones aged 21. Mary Naylor Jones aged 41 was the other female noted.
On 3 September their son, Elisha Jones, was married at age 17, to Margaret Talbot, in Smithfield.
18 February, 1832, Thomas and Mary Jones of Wells Township, deeded to brother Stephen Jones, co-executor of Jacob Jones' will, SW Quarter, Sec. 15 T 9, R 3 (the farm where Jacob lived at the time of his death). They sold their portion for $150.00.
9 April 1832 (Jefferson County Deeds book N p. 591, Thomas purchased from his sister Lavinia Naylor Marsh, and her husband, Jonathan Marsh, the NE Quarter of Section 34, township 5, Range 2, in Steubenville district of 51 acres, for $500. It was recorded 17 October 1832.
A puzzling item occurs in Jefferson County Ohio land record book K p. 140. On 26 October, 1832, a summons is recorded to plaintiffs who were assignees of Thomas Jones and Calvin Truesdale. Apparently they owed the firm of Jones and Truesdale $450. There had been a promissory note given 7 April 1832 for $258.10. Judgment was awarded of $228 and court costs. Unfortunately the item was researched in Jefferson County Ohio in 1986 by the writer. Not enough information was noted to know the full circumstances. The writer has not been aware of another Thomas Jones in Jefferson County in this time period. So little information is available on Thomas, the writer is including the information in the hopes that another research will find the notes helpful. We do know that this was the time period of Thomas and his tax-delinquent house.
6 March 1835, Thomas and Mary Jones in Jefferson County, granted to their son Elisha Jones (Book Q, P. 193) for $500 North East Quarter, Sec 34, T5 R2 51 acres. (The same land Thomas had purchased from the Marsh family.)
In 1836, James Naylor Jones sold to Reason Penn (Vol. W, P. 128 for $625, 160 acres R 12, T8 S 24. James N. was following Thomas to Morgan County. Thomas and Mary Jones were arranging for the move. Also their third son Jacob Jones married Hannah Worrall 9 August 1836 in Morgan County, Ohio. Son Jacob was nineteen years of age at that time. Young marriages were common in these frontier circumstances.
4 April 1836, Thomas and Mary sold to Finley Ong, for $4400.00, 163 acres in Jefferson County Book R p. 283, So East Quarter Section 34, T 5 R 2. In light of prices for other parcels of land quoted here, the above price paid Thomas and Mary Jones seems very large. Here again we can only assume that the above land was very valuable, or there was some good reason for the price. Obviously this sale helped Thomas locate in Morgan County and purchase what came to be his last holdings. It is even more unusual when history records that in 1837, under President Andrew Jackson's regime, a very severe depression hit, which lasted for several years. The Jones family seems to have worked through this period without losing land.
In Morgan County Thomas (who is now listed from Jefferson County), on the 28 March 1836 purchased: from James and John Davis (Vol. F p. 353) 110 acres, part of SW Quarter R 12 T9 S 10, for $1050. From Samuel M and Mary Evans (F p. 354) 22 acres for $147, R 12 T 9 S 10. From James and Susan Harris (F p. 355) 159 acres, NE Quarter R 12, T9, S 10, for $1800. Also from his brother-in-law, James Naylor (and Margaret Marsh Naylor) (F p. 357) 60 acres for $625, NW Quarter R 12 T 9 S 15, and lastly, from his brother-in-law Isaac Naylor (and Elizabeth Marsh Naylor) (F p. 383) 40 acres for $400, SW Quarter R 12 T 9 S 10.
Young son Elisha and his wife, Margaret Talbot Jones, also followed his parents Thomas and Mary to Morgan County. On 27 February 1836 they sold to John Grenshaw for $625 the 51 acres Thomas and Mary had deeded them in March 1835.
In 1840 the Federal Census must have been checked late in Morgan County, for it shows Thomas, now aged 53 and Mary aged 51, as being alone. Daughter Elizabeth Ann had married James C. W. Evans at the age of seventeen, on 17 September 1840 in Morgan County.
Thomas and Mary were certainly not bereft of family in their area, however. James Naylor and Sarah Ann had presented four grandchildren by this time: Elizabeth Ann (10), Amy Amelia (8), Jacob (5) and Edith Maria born 3 January 1840. Also son Elisha's family included Martha (8), Thomas (6), Richard (4), John (2) and Mary born 11 January 1840. Son Jacob Jones also had Mary (2) and baby Rachel Ann born 3 March 1840. Mary Naylor Jones must have had lots of enjoyment with ten grandchildren under the age of ten years. This included three baby girls all less than one year old.
January 29, 1841 James Naylor Jones and Sarah Ann sold land to a relative of their sister-in-law, Hannah Worrall Jones. They also sold land to Mary Naylor Jones' brother, James Naylor. Their conversion to the LDS church is discussed elsewhere. We know that they left Pennsville around 1842. Their decision must have caused some trauma in the lives of parents Thomas and Mary Jones.
Tragedy came to the Joneses with the death of son Jacob's wife Hannah Worrall Jones, probably after the birth of her son Reason, 14 November 1845. Hannah would have been 21 years old. Thomas Jones also bought 410 acres near his farm – R 12 T 9 S 10 from Ezra Thompson for $2400. (Volume M p. 210). Also listed 16 July 1845 Vol. M p. 410 Ezra Thompson and wife Amy sold Thomas 3 acres for $24, a part of Sec. 10, T 9, R 12, SW Quarter.
In 1846 Thomas bought more land from Michael Trainer (Vol. N p. 411) in Morganville, for $50. Also Thomas' son Jacob married his second wife, Martha M. Keever on 8 March 1846. Sorrow continued with the Jones family, for grandson Thomas Jones, son of Elisha and Margaret died 10 April 1846, aged ten years old. In summer or fall, Thomas and Mary were surprised to have James Naylor and Sarah Jones, and three of their children return to spend the winter before they gathered to travel west with the body of the LDS church.
Elisha reports that he and Margaret were baptized by James Naylor Jones in the night "because of persecution" about 3 March 1847. James, with his parents' help, had gathered provisions and a wagon to leave for Winter Quarters. He left in the spring before Elisha and his family. Elisha states he arrived in Winter Quarters, Nebraska on 27 July 1847.
Again these decisions by family members to leave must have been heart breaking for Thomas and Mary Jones. However they respected the free agency of their sons. There is no family tradition in the Western Joneses that there was a break with the family in Ohio. The parents never saw these sons again. Elisha Jones records receiving some letters from his sister Elizabeth Ann Evans and her husband.
The 1850 Federal Census is the first to list family members by name, their ages, places of birth and other valuable information. Thomas Jones is 63 years old and Mary Naylor Jones is 61. With them is their granddaughter Rachel Ann Jones 9 (daughter of Jacob) and Thomas' brother-law, William Peregoy, aged 59. William was husband of Temperence Jones Peregoy. In a residence nearby the census list Thomas' mother, Elizabeth Peregoy Jones, aged 81. She had been a widow for 21 years. Thomas' brother Stephen, aged 53, also lived nearby. Apparently Elizabeth Peregoy Jones was either living in Morgan County or visiting with her two sons and many grandchildren there.
We have no facts on Thomas for the years 1851 through 1853, other than the continued births of his grandchildren, which are listed in the family group sheet section of this compilation. In 1854 his son-in-law, James C W Evans sold land which was probably city lots in McConnelsville, Morgan, Ohio. However the Evans family still remained in Pennsville area.
In 1855 Thomas and Mary Jones sold much of their land holdings to William and Henry Miller for $5000. There were five parcels of land listed in Deed book (Grantor) Y, p. 513 and p 110. There were: (1) SW Quarter Sec. 10 T 9 R 12 (110 acres); (2) SW Quarter S 10 T 9 R 12 (Thomas had purchased this land from John and James Davis) 40 acres; (3) NE Quarter of Sec. 15 T 9 R 12, 20 Acres; (4) NW Quarter S 15 T 9 R 12; (5) NW Quarter S 10 T 9 R 12 beginning at NW corner at tract Thomas Jones bought from Isaac Naylor then to land from John and Jane Davis and to land from Isaac Naylor, south to Peter Miller boundary line, about 3 acres. Mary Naylor Jones was consulted and agreed that she accepted the sale of this land. She, with Thomas, signed the contract on October 1, 1855. This is interesting because their son Elisha Jones listed in his journal that he thought his mother, Mary, died in September 1855. She probably died between October and December of 1855. Thomas was 68 years old at this time and Mary 66.
In 1858 Elisha Jones also lists his sister Elizabeth Ann Evans as living in Iowa and receiving a letter from her. If this was true, it was for a brief period, for the 1860 and 1870 Federal Census show the family in Morgan County. In 1860 she and her brother Jacob were living next to each other. Both Jacob Jones and James C. W. Evans were listed as farmers. It would seem reasonable that Jacob helped his father Thomas with his farm, since Thomas was 71 by 1858 and 73 by 1860.
In 1859 a tax assessment list shows the Thomas Jones evaluations as – some land $100, house $150, 28 acres of plowed land, meadow land 39 acres, woodland 95 acres, total 160 acres. Total value $2880. The tax assessed is not listed in the reference. In the 1860 Census, taken 26 June 1860 Thomas is shown aged 73, with granddaughter Rachel Ann Jones, who was 19, probably living with him to help take care of him. However she is also shown in the home of her father Jacob Jones, so she was visiting one or the other place when the census taker came by. Thomas is listed as having real estate valued at $5800 and personal property valued at $5100. We note that Mary Naylor Jones is not listed. As noted before, we surmise she died late in 1855.
15 May 1863 Elisha Jones recorded in his journal that he received a letter from his sister (Elizabeth Ann Evans) from Ohio. Since Elisha was in Heber City, Utah, we can be sure that he had written Elizabeth Ann, so that she knew where to respond. Thomas Jones was 76 years old by now and Elisha was probably concerned for news of his father and the family in Ohio.
We turn to the National Scene because after much debate and confrontation over the slavery issue, finally the Northern and Southern States went into the Civil War. In April 1861 Fort Sumpter was surrendered to Southern forces and the war was on. We are only aware of one member of the Thomas Jones family name who was involved in the fighting. His grandson, Reason Jones, was the son of Jacob Jones. In a pension application, Reason Jones stated that he tried to enlist in the Northern forces six times, but his father, Jacob, removed him as under age. Finally Reason enlisted November 15, 1863 at McConnelsville, Ohio for a term of three years. He was described as having blue eyes, light hair and a fair complexion. He was five feet five inches tall. Reason was taken prisoner by the Confederates 22 July 1864 and spent 4 months in the notorious Anderson prison, being released at Savannah Georgia, 26 November 1864. A local physician who examined Reason after his return from prison said he had changed markedly, including a sallow complexion and emaciation. Reason had developed diarrhea, nasal catarrh and hemorrhoids. His health improved through the years, but headaches continued to bother him. Reason certified that these problems came about partly through his time in the terrible conditions at the prison. We can be sure that Thomas shared the concern the rest of the family felt for the condition of his grandson. Reason Jones received a furlough for December 1864, which was a happy time for his family.
Throughout 1864 the battles had raged, but finally in 1865, the Union soldiers prevailed. Southern General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant 9 April 1865 at Appomattox Court House. General Grant granted generous terms for the soldiers. However the victory came at terrible cost to both parts of the United States. More than 359,000 men died from the Union army, and over 258,000 from the Confederate forces. Many parts of the Southern States were ruined and the whole country paid a bitter price. However it was established that each state was not an entity to itself, but part of the larger whole of the Union.
In 1865 Thomas was still decreasing his land holdings. No doubt he had heard of the death of his oldest son, James Naylor Jones in Utah. Morgan County, Ohio Grantor record Vol. 11, p. 187 shows that Thomas sold lot #20, in the first addition to the town of Pennsville, Morgan County, Ohio to William Embree for $1000. James C. W. Evans (Thomas' son-in-law) and Isaac G. Naylor (his brother-in-law) are witnesses.
Thomas' health must have declined and the years were heavy upon him, for on April 20 1867 he made his last will and testament.
Copied from James Naylor Jones, 1810-1865, his ancestors, life, and families, compiled by Elearnore Mae Jones Smith (1921- ), his great great granddaughter. Published Seattle, Washington: E. J. Smith, 1997, pages 17-29.
Jacob Jones (1760 - 1829)
Elizabeth Peregoy Jones (1769 - 1851)
Mary Naylor Jones (1787 - 1855)
James Naylor Jones (1810 - 1865)*
Elisha Jones (1813 - 1880)*
Jacob Jones (1817 - 1890)*
Elizabeth Ann Jones Evans (1823 - 1882)*
Thomas Jones (1787 - 1869)
Stephen Jones (1797 - 1873)*
Joshua Jones (1812 - 1866)*
Created by: Bonnie Huish
Record added: Mar 15, 2008
Find A Grave Memorial# 25298123