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John Quincy Adams
Birth: Jul. 11, 1767
Quincy
Norfolk County
Massachusetts, USA
Death: Feb. 23, 1848
Washington
District of Columbia
District Of Columbia, USA

US President, Presidential Cabinet Secretary, Diplomat, US Senator and Congressman. He served as the 6th US President from 1825 until 1829. The 2nd child and oldest son of John Adams (the 2nd US President) and his wife Abigail Smith Adams, he received his primary education at home. He spent much of his youth accompanying his father in his overseas assignments, including the American Envoy to France from 1778 until 1779 and to the Netherlands from 1780 until 1782. He furthered his education at European institutions such as Leiden University where he matriculated in January 1781. For nearly three years, at the age of 14, he accompanied Francis Dana as a secretary on a mission to Saint Petersburg, Russia, to obtain recognition of the newly formed US. He also spent time in Finland, Sweden, and Denmark and in 1804, published a travel report of Silesia. He became fluent in French and Dutch and became familiar with German and other European languages. He enrolled at Harvard College at Cambridge, Massachusetts and graduated in 1787 with a Bachelor of Arts Degree and in 1790 he received a Master of Arts Degree from Harvard. From 1787 until 1789 he apprenticed as an attorney with Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport, Massachusetts and was admitted to the bar in 1791 and began practicing law in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1793 President George Washington appointed him Minister to the Netherlands and after his father's persuasion he accepted it. In 1796 Washington made him Minister to Portugal and when his father became the US President in 1797, he appointed him Minister to Prussia, serving until 1801. After returning to the US, he entered politics and in April 1802 he was elected a member of the Massachusetts State Senate. The following November he ran as a Federalist for the US House of Representatives and lost. In 1803 the Massachusetts General Court elected him as a Federalist to the US Senate and he served from March of that year until June 1808, when he broke with the Federalist Party, resigned his Senate seat, and became a Republican. During his time in the US Senate he became a professor of logic at Brown University at Providence, Rhode Island. In 1809 President James Madison appointed him the first ever US Minister to Russia and in 1811 he was offered a commission as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the US, which he declined. In 1814 he was recalled from Russia to serve as chief negotiator of the US commission for the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812 between the US and England. From 1815 until 1817 he was sent to be the US Minister to the Court of St. James's (England), a post that was first held by his father. He then served as Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President James Monroe from 1817 until 1825. During his term, he negotiated the Adams-Onis Treaty (which acquired Florida for the US from Spain), the Treaty of 1818, a convention respecting fisheries, established the US-British North America boundary as the 49th parallel, and the restoration of slaves, and authored the famous Monroe Doctrine which was introduced in December 1823, barring European countries from further colonizing land in the Americas. In 1824 he ran for US President against the Democratic candidate Andrew Jackson. While Jackson won the election he did not win enough of the overall popular and electoral vote and under the terms of the 12th Amendment, the presidential election fell to the House of Representatives, which was to choose from the top three candidates of Jackson, Adams, and Crawford, and on the 1st ballot Adams won the presidency. During his term he worked on transforming America into a world power through internal improvements, to include extending existing railways, canals, road-building, a national university, an astronomical observatory, and a national bank to encourage productive enterprise and form a national currency. In 1828 he ran for a 2nd presidential term and lost to Andrew Jackson by a decisive margin. He returned to Massachusetts where in 1830 he ran for and won a seat in the US House of Representatives, the first President to serve in Congress after his term in office. He was elected to 8 additional congressional terms, serving from 1831 until his death. In Congress he served as chair of the Committee on Commerce and Manufactures, the Committee on Indian Affairs and the Committee on Foreign Affairs. In 1841, at the request of Lewis Tappan and Ellis Gray, he joined the case of US versus The Amistad. On February 24, 1841 he went before the US Supreme Court on behalf of African slaves who had revolted and seized the Spanish ship Amistad and spoke for four hours. His argument was successful and the Court ruled in favor of the Africans, who were declared free and returned to their homes. In 1843 he sat for the earliest confirmed photograph still in existence of a US president, although other sources contend that William Henry Harrison had posed even earlier for his portrait, in 1841. In 1846 he suffered a stroke that left him partially paralyzed. After a few months of rest, he made a full recovery and resumed his duties in Congress. On February 21, 1848, the US House of Representatives was discussing the matter of honoring US Army officers who served in the Mexican-American War. He had been a vehement critic of the war, and as Congressmen rose up to say "Aiy!" in favor of the measure, he instead yelled "No!" When he rose to answer a question put forth by the Speaker of the House, he collapsed, having suffered a massive cerebral hemorrhage. He died two days later at the age of 80 in the Speaker's room inside the Capital Building in Washington DC. His last words were "This is the last of earth. I am content." After his funeral, he was placed in the receiving vault at Congressional Cemetery in Washington DC, then returned to Quincy, Massachusetts and interred with his parents in Hancock Cemetery. Eventually, a crypt was constructed in the basement of the First Parish Church in Braintree, Massachusetts where his remains and those of his wife and parents were moved. His son, Charles Francis Adams, was a US Congressman and diplomat, and a key diplomatic figure during the American Civil War. One of his most important legacies is his massive diary, which he began at age 11. It covers, in extraordinary detail, his life and experiences up to his death in 1848 and is housed at the Massachusetts Historical Society in Boston. The massive 50-volumes are one of the most extensive collections of first-hand information from that period of the early American republic, and are cited by historians in a wide range of matters pertaining to that period. In the PBS miniseries "The Adams Chronicles" (1976), he was portrayed by actors David Birney, William Daniels, Marcel Trenchard, Steven Grover and Mark Winkworth. He was also portrayed by actor Anthony Hopkins in the 1997 film "Amistad," and again by Ebon Moss-Bachrach and Steven Hinkle in the 2008 HBO television miniseries "John Adams." He and John Adams were the only father and son to serve as US presidents until George H. W. Bush (1989 to 1993) and George W. Bush (2001 to 2009). As of 2014, his wife, Louisa Catherine Johnson Adams, who was born in London, England is the only presidential First Lady born outside of the US. (bio by: William Bjornstad) 
 
Family links: 
 Parents:
  John Adams (1735 - 1826)
  Abigail Smith Adams (1744 - 1818)
 
 Spouse:
  Louisa Catherine Johnson Adams (1775 - 1852)
 
 Children:
  George Washington Adams (1801 - 1829)*
  John Adams (1803 - 1834)*
  Charles Francis Adams (1807 - 1886)*
  Louisa Catherine Adams (1811 - 1812)*
 
 Siblings:
  Abigail Adams Smith (1765 - 1813)*
  John Quincy Adams (1767 - 1848)
  Grace Susanna Adams (1768 - 1770)*
  Charles Adams (1770 - 1800)*
  Thomas Boylston Adams (1772 - 1832)*
  Elizabeth Adams (1777 - 1777)*
 
*Calculated relationship

Cause of death: Stroke
 
Burial:
United First Parish Church
Quincy
Norfolk County
Massachusetts, USA
Plot: Basement crypt
 
Maintained by: Find A Grave
Record added: Jan 01, 2001
Find A Grave Memorial# 7
John Quincy Adams
Added by: Bobb Edwards
 
John Quincy Adams
Added by: bosguy
 
John Quincy Adams
Added by: Mike Reed
 
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Thank you for your public service to our country, you served it well. May you rest in peace.
- William Bjornstad
 Added: Aug. 6, 2014

- Lloyd Brannon
 Added: Jul. 12, 2014

- DENA ANN
 Added: Jul. 11, 2014
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