Born in Ireland, of Scottist descent, the son of Matthew Anderson. In 1841 was a Crown Solicitor and recieves a B.A. from Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland. In 1862 was called to the Bar. In 1863 he married Agnes Alexandrina Moore. In 1873 he was brought over to London, England as part of an Intelligence Branch to combat. In 1876 Robert became Home Office Advisor at Scotland Yard in matters relating to political crime. He was also controller of the Spy-Thomas Miller Beach. In 1886 he was relieved of all duties except controlling Beach, after trouble at the Home Office. 1887-1888 he became Secretary Childers. In 1888 he became Secretary of the Prison Commissioners. In August of 1901 he replaces James Monro as Assistant Commissioner of the Central Intelligence Division (CID). In 1910 he retired and was knighted. In 1918, just before his death, he publishes his memoirs, "The Lighter Side of my Official Life." He was considered the Great Secret Service Theologian.