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Theodore Roosevelt
Birth: Oct. 27, 1858
New York
New York County (Manhattan)
New York, USA
Death: Jan. 6, 1919
Oyster Bay
Nassau County
New York, USA


US Vice President and President, Governor of New York, Author, Naturalist, Nobel Prize Winner, and Spanish-American Medal of Honor Recipient. A member of the Republican Party, he served briefly as the 25th US Vice President under President William McKinley from March until September 1901 and the 25th US President following McKinley's death from September 1901 until March 1909. He has consistently been ranked by scholars as one of the greatest US Presidents. Born into a wealthy family, his father was a successful glass manufacturer. As a youth he was sickly, suffering from severe asthma from which he experienced recurring sudden nighttime asthma attacks that caused near deathlike experiences of being smothered to death. To overcome his physical weakness, he embraced a strenuous life with a heavy regimen of exercise. He travel abroad with his family, with trips to Europe in 1869 and 1870 and Egypt in 1872. He was home-schooled and became an eager student of nature. In 1876 he attended Harvard College (now Harvard University) in Cambridge, Massachusetts where he studied biology, boxed, and developed an interest in naval affairs, graduating in June 1880. He then attended Columbia Law School in New York City, New York but became disenchanted with his studies and decided to focus his attention to politics. The same year, he married Alice Hathaway Lee, the daughter of a banker, on his 22nd birthday. In 1881 he was elected to the New York State Assembly where he became a leader of the reform faction of the Republican Party. And served until 1884. In 1882 he wrote his first book, "The Naval War of 1812" which established him as a learned historian and writer. When his wife died shortly after giving birth to their daughter Alice in February 1884, he dealt with his grief by going out West and becoming a cattle rancher in Medora, North Dakota. Two years later when a severe winter wiped out his cattle herd along with most of his $80,000 investment, he returned to the East and ran as the Republican candidate for Mayor of New York City in a three-way race and came in last. In December 1886 he married Edith Kermit Carow in London, England and while honeymooning in Europe, he led a group to the summit of Mont Blanc in the French/Italian Alps, an achievement that resulted in his induction into the Royal Society of London. In the 1888 presidential election, he successfully campaigned, for Benjamin Harrison who appointed him to the US Civil Service Commission, serving until 1895. He then became president of the board of New York City Police Commissioners for two years and radically reformed the police force that was reputed to be one of the most corrupt in the US. In 1897 he was appointed by President William McKinley as Assistant Secretary of the Navy and used the opportunity to pressure McKinley on his national security views regarding the Pacific and the Caribbean. He was particularly adamant that Spain be ejected from Cuba, to foster the latter's independence and demonstrate US resolve to re-enforce the Monroe Doctrine. He was instrumental in preparing the US Navy for the Spanish-American War. After the US declared war on Spain in late April 1898, he resigned his post and together with US Army Colonel Leonard Wood, formed the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, nicknamed the Rough Riders. After training for several weeks in San Antonio, Texas his unit departed Tampa, Florida in June 13 and landed in Daiquiri, Cuba. He was given the rank of lieutenant colonel and became commander of the regiment when Wood was promoted to brigade commander, and later was promoted to the rank of colonel. After participating in a minor skirmish at the Battle of Las Guasimas, on July 1, 1898 he led the Rough Riders in their famous charge up San Juan Hill (also known as Kettle Hill) and were victorious against the Spanish defenders. The following August he returned to the US and campaigned for the Governor of New York, winning the election by a slim 1 percent margin. In 1900 he was nominated as McKinley's running mate and they won the general election, defeating Democratic candidate William Jennings Bryan. His short term as US Vice President was uneventful but in early September he first publicized his famous aphorism "Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far." On September 6, 1901 McKinley was shot by political anarchist Leon Czolgosz at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York and Roosevelt was sworn in as US President upon McKinley's death eight days later. He became the youngest US President to serve (vice elected), at the age of 42, retained McKinley's Cabinet and promised to continue his policies. In the November 1904 presidential election, he won the presidency in a landslide victory against Democratic candidate Alton Brooks Parker. His vice president was Indiana US Senator Charles Warren Fairbanks. During his presidency he aggressively used the of US antitrust law and became known as the "trust-buster." He brought 40 antitrust suits, and broke up such major combinations as the Northern Security Company (a large railroad trust formed in 1901) and Standard Oil, the largest oil company. He also supported organized labor to the further chagrin of big business, but to their delight he endorsed the gold standard, protective tariffs and lower taxes. He was the first president to speak out on conservation, and he greatly expanded the system of national parks and national forests. Not long after becoming President, he became interested in building an isthmus canal in Central America either in Nicaragua or Panama, then a rebellious district within Columbia. He convinced Congress of the Panamanian alternative and a treaty was approved, only to be rejected by the Columbian government. When the Panamanians learned of this, a rebellion followed and the US intervened that would form the new country of Panama. A treaty with the new Panama government was then reached in 1903 for construction of the canal which was completed in 1914. In response to public anger over the abuses in the food packing industry, in 1906 he pushed Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act and The Pure Food and Drug Act. In 1905 he offered to mediate a treaty to end the Russo-Japanese War. The parties agreed to meet in Portsmouth, New Hampshire and ironed out a final conflict over division of Sakhalin - Russia took the northern half and Japan the south, and Japan dropped its demand for an indemnity. As a result, he won the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for his successful efforts. He expanded the US Navy and in December 1907, to demonstrate the US growing military power, he ordered the launching of the Great White Fleet that completed a circumnavigation of the world. In 1909 he convened the first White House Conference on the Care of Dependent Children. After his re-election in 1908 he said he would not run again and before his term expired, he declared his support for the Republican nominee, William Howard Taft, as a "genuine progressive." Taft easily defeated Democratic candidate William Jennings Bryan. When he left office in March 1909, he joined the Smithsonian-Roosevelt African Expedition, a safari in east and central Africa outfitted by the Smithsonian Institution. Financed by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie and by his own proposed writings, his party hunted for specimens for the Smithsonian Institution and for the American Museum of Natural History in New York. When President Taft began to promote a different progressivism during his term, he became disenchanted and during the 1912 Republican Convention he formed the Progressive, or "Bull Moose" party as an alternative to the Republican Party. While campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin he was shot by John Flammang Schrank but initially refused medical attention and delivered a 90-minute speech before being hospitalized. The bullet lodged in his chest muscle after passing through his single-folded 50-page speech, but it did not cause further damage and hit was left in place. His candidacy split the Republican vote and Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson won the election. In December 1913 he set out to explore the Brazilian jungle as a member of the Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition and searched for the headwaters of the uncharted Rio da Duvida, (the River of Doubt). During the excursion he suffered a minor leg injury that became infected which led to tropical fever and his health worsened and he lost over 50 pounds. He managed to complete the excursion and returned to the US. When World War I broke out in July 1914 he strongly supported the Allies and demanded a harsher policy against Germany, especially regarding submarine warfare. In March 1917 Congress gave him the authority to raise up to four divisions similar to the "Rough Riders." After the US entered World War I in April 1917 President Woodrow Wilson announced he would not send Roosevelt and his volunteers to France, but instead would send an American Expeditionary Force under the command of General John Pershing, much to Roosevelt's displeasure. Following the end of World War I, he died in his sleep at the age of 60 from a blood clot that detached from a vein and entered his lungs. During his life he wrote a number of books, including "Hunting Trips of a Ranchman," "Ranch Life and the Hunting-Trail," "The Wilderness Hunter," "The Rough Riders," "African Game Trails," and "The Winning of the West," a four volume narrative that focused on the American frontier in the 18th and early 19th centuries. In 1927 he was honored with his face carved into Mount Rushmore in South Dakota, along with George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln. The US Navy named two ships in his honor, the submarine USS Theodore Roosevelt that was in commission from 1961 to 1982 and the aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt, commissioned in 1986. He was also honored on several stamps issued by the US Post office. In 2008 Columbia Law School posthumously awarded him a law degree, making him a member of the class of 1882. In 2001 he was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions at San Juan Hill during the Spanish-American War. His citation reads as follows: "For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt distinguished himself by acts of bravery on 1 July, 1898, near Santiago de Cuba, Republic of Cuba, while leading a daring charge up San Juan Hill. Lieutenant Colonel Roosevelt, in total disregard for his personal safety, and accompanied by only four or five men, led a desperate and gallant charge up San Juan Hill, encouraging his troops to continue the assault through withering enemy fire over open countryside. Facing the enemy's heavy fire, he displayed extraordinary bravery throughout the charge, and was the first to reach the enemy trenches, where he quickly killed one of the enemy with his pistol, allowing his men to continue the assault. His leadership and valor turned the tide in the Battle for San Juan Hill. Lieutenant Colonel Roosevelt's extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army." He has been portrayed many times in films and on television, most recently by actor Robin Williams as a wax mannequin that comes to life in fantasy adventure-comedy films "Night at the Museum" (2006) and its sequels "Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian" (2009) and "Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb" (scheduled to be released in 2014). In July 1918 his youngest son Quentin was killed in aerial combat over France during World War I. His oldest son Theodore became a brigadier general in the US Army and died of a heart attack a month after participating in the June 6, 1944 Allied invasion of Normandy, France, for which he also received the Medal of Honor. (bio by: William Bjornstad) 
 
Family links: 
 Parents:
  Theodore Roosevelt (1831 - 1878)
  Martha Stewart Bulloch Roosevelt (1835 - 1884)
 
 Spouses:
  Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt (1861 - 1884)
  Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt (1861 - 1948)
 
 Children:
  Alice Lee Roosevelt Longworth (1884 - 1980)*
  Theodore Roosevelt (1887 - 1944)*
  Kermit Roosevelt (1889 - 1943)*
  Ethel Roosevelt Derby (1891 - 1977)*
  Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt (1894 - 1979)*
  Quentin Roosevelt (1897 - 1918)*
 
 Siblings:
  Anna Roosevelt Cowles (1855 - 1931)*
  Theodore Roosevelt (1858 - 1919)
  Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (1860 - 1894)*
  Corinne Roosevelt Robinson (1861 - 1933)*
 
*Calculated relationship
 
Burial:
Youngs Memorial Cemetery
Oyster Bay
Nassau County
New York, USA
 
Maintained by: Find A Grave
Record added: Jan 01, 2001
Find A Grave Memorial# 898
Theodore Roosevelt
Added by: Bobb Edwards
 
Theodore Roosevelt
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Theodore Roosevelt
Added by: Paul1957
 
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- Stacey
 Added: Oct. 19, 2014
God bless you throughout Autumn, the beautiful, fiery season of the Harvest. Rest in Peace.
- Richard S. Barzelogna
 Added: Oct. 19, 2014
Rest in peace Mr. President
- Vern-O
 Added: Oct. 19, 2014
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Current ranking for this person: (4.9 after 631 votes)
 

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