US Supreme Court Justice. He fought in the American Revolution as a young officer under George Washington; served briefly in Congress in 1799; was Secretary of State under President John Adams 1800-1801; became Chief Justice of the United States in 1801, a position he held until his death. He died in Philadelphia where he was undergoing medical treatment. His decision in the case of Marbury vs. Madison became the foundation of judicial power in America. He is now universally known as the Great Chief Justice.