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Dr Alan Mathison Turing
Birth: Jun. 23, 1912
Maida Vale
Greater London, England
Death: Jun. 7, 1954
Wilmslow
Cheshire, England

Scientist. A British cryptographer, mathematician, logican, and philosopher, he was often considered to be a father of modern science. During World War II he was intrumental in contributing to decipher the Nazi code. Some sources say this work was decisive for defeating the Third Reich. He was born in Paddington, West London, England. His father, Julius Mathison Turing, was a member of the Indian Civil Service. Very early in life he showed signs of the genius he was to display more prominently later, presenting an early affinity for numbers and puzzles. He attended St.Michael's, a day school, at six years of age. The headmistress recognized his genius early on, as did many of his subsequent educators. In 1926, at the age of 14 he went to Sherborne school in Dorset. His first day of term coincided with a general strike in England, and so determined was he to attend his first day that he rode his bike unaccompanied over sixty miles from Southampton to school, stopping overnight at an inn - a feat reported in the local press. Turing's natural inclination toward mathematics and science did not earn him respect with the teachers at Sherbourne, a famous and expensive public school (a British private school with charitable status), whose definition of education placed more emphasis on the classics. He demonstrated remarkable ability in the studies he loved, solving advanced problems in 1927 without having even studied elementary calculas. In 1928, aged sixteen, he encountered Albert Einstein's work; not only did he grasp it, but he extrapolated Einstein's questioning of Newton's laws of motion from a text in which this was never made explicit. He then attented King's College , Cambridge, where he was undergraduate from 1931 to 1934, graduating with a distinguished degree, and in 1935 was elected a Fellow at King's College. During World War 11, Turing was a major participant in the efforts at Bletchley Park to break German ciphers. His codebreaking work was kept secret until the 1970s; not even his close friends knew about it. He contributed several mathematical insights into breaking both the Enigma machine and the Lorenz SZ 40/42 (a teletype cipher attachment), the code by means of which the German armed forces sought to protect their radio communications, and was for a time head of Hut 8, the section at Bletchley Park responsible for reading German Naval signals. To break Enigma he devised an electro mechanical machine which searched for the correct setting of the Enigma rotors. The machine was called the bombe, named after the Polish-designed bomba. Using a bombe, it was possible to ignore the effect of the Enigma plugboard and consider the settings of its rotors alone, and eliminate most of them from consideration for each possible setting, a chain of logic deductions was implemented electrically and it was possible to detect when a cotradiction had occured and rule out that setting. Over 200 hundred bombes were in operation by the end of the war. In 1940, Turing solved the Naval Enigma system, which was more complex than the indicator systems used by the other services. Thanks to bombes, by early 1942 Bletchley Park were decoding about 39,000 intercepted messages each month, rising subsequently to over 84,000 messages a month. Turing's work on the version of Enigma used by the German Navy was vital to the battle for supremacy in the North Atlantic. He also contributed to the attack on the cyphers known as " Fish." Based on binary teleprinter code, Fish was used during the latter part of the war in preference to morse-based Enigma for the high-level signals, for example messages from Hitler and members of the German High Command. It is estimated that the work of Bletchley Park shortened the war in Europe by at least two years. Turing received the Order of the British Empire for the part he played. He became involved in discussions on the contrasts and similaraties between machine and brains. Turing's view expressed with great force and wit, was those who saw an unbridgeable gap between the two to say just where the difference lay. In 1950 he published computing machinery and intelligence in Mind. It is another remarkable work from his brilliantly inventive mind which seemed to foresee the questions which would arise as computers developed. He studied problems which today lie at the heart of artificial intelligence. It was in this 1950 paper that he proposed the Turing Test which is still today the test people apply in attemping to answer whether a computer can be intelligent. In 2002, a BBC popular poll placed Turing as the 21st Great Britain of all time. Alan Turing died in 1954; the inquest found he had commited suicide by eating an apple laced with cyanide. He was cremated at Woking, Surrey, England. (bio by: s.canning) 
 
Burial:
Woking Crematorium
Woking
Woking Borough
Surrey, England
 
Maintained by: Find A Grave
Originally Created by: s.canning
Record added: Dec 10, 2005
Find A Grave Memorial# 12651680
Dr Alan Mathison Turing
Added by: Ron Moody
 
Dr Alan Mathison Turing
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Added by: julia&keld
 
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a wonderful mind
- Sharon
 Added: Dec. 6, 2014
"Now cracks a noble heart - Good night, sweet prince: And flights of angels sing thee to thy rest." - Hamlet Act 5 Scene 2. - Thank you Dr. Turing for all that you did for so many who will now know.
- Steven Huston
 Added: Nov. 30, 2014
Genius who saved thousands of lives RIP
- PAUL
 Added: Nov. 25, 2014
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