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Flowers left for James Gadsden
James Gadsden : Sir, you will be remembered as an American diplomat, soldier and businessman and namesake of the Gadsden Purchase, in which the United States purchased from Mexico the land that became the southern portion of Arizona and New Mexico. You served as Adjutant General of the U. S. Army from August 13, 1821-March 22, 1822, and held the rank of colonel in the US Army. You werecommonly known as General Gadsden but was only a two-star general. In 1853, you were appointed by the U.S. Government as the new American minister to Mexico, with instructions to purchase more land from Mexico for the prospective railroad route across southernmost New Mexico and Arizona, and to clear up the possibility of disputes over the location of the boundary between the two countries. You successfully carried out this mission by negotiating with the Mexican government in Mexico City for the purchase of more land from Mexico for southmost New Mexico and Arizona, and by establishing the boundary between the United States and Mexico as two long line segments between the Rio Grande at the westmost tip of Texas all the way to the Colorado River at the eastern boundary of California. This treaty is called the "Gadsden Treaty", and it led to the Gadsden Purchase from Mexico of about 30,000 square miles (78,000 km2) of land in northmost Mexico for $10,000,000. As events unfolded in the following decades, and well-over a century, the dreamed-up railroad just to the north of the Mexican border was never built. However, the land bought in the Gadsden Purchase later contained the site of Arizona's second largest city, Tucson, the minor cities and towns of Casa Grande, and Yuma, Arizona, Lordsburg and Deming, New Mexico, and it cleared up the status of the area north of the Gila River, that later became the metropolitan area of Phoenix, Scottsdale, Mesa, Glendale, and Tempe, Arizona. When it comes to the land well south of Phoenix where tentative plans had been made to build a transcontinental railroad, most of this is arid desertland that is not suitable for much human inhabitation. Nearly all of this Federally-owned land was, in the long run, set aside as a large, sparsely-inhabited American Indian reservation, testing and combat-practice ranges for the U.S. Air Force, the large Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument and Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, the Coronado National Forest, the Sonoran Desert National Monument, the Ironwood Forest National Monument, the Saguaro National Park, and the Fort Huachuca Military Reservation of the U.S. Army. thanks for your help in American history, happy birthday!
- MFPS
 Added: May. 15, 2013

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